Tag Archives: water quality

USAID supported study on unsafe drinking water & environmental enteric dysfunction

Unsafe Drinking Water Is Associated with Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Poor Growth Outcomes in Young Children in Rural Southwestern Uganda. Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 22 October 2018.

Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical disorder of the small intestine, and poor growth are associated with living in poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions, but specific risk factors remain unclear. Nested within a birth cohort study, this study investigates relationships among water quality, EED, and growth in 385 children living in southwestern Uganda.

Water quality was assessed using a portable water quality test when children were 6 months, and safe water was defined as lacking Escherichia coli contamination. Environmental enteric dysfunction was assessed using the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test at 12-16 months. Anthropometry and covariate data were extracted from the cohort study, and associations were assessed using linear and logistic regression models. Less than half of the households (43.8%) had safe water, and safe versus unsafe water did not correlate with improved versus unimproved water source.

In adjusted linear regression models, children from households with safe water had significantly lower log-transformed (ln) L:M ratios (β: -0.22, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.00) and significantly higher length-for-age (β: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.58) and weight-for-age (β: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.34) Z-scores at 12-16 months.

Furthermore, in adjusted linear regression models, ln L:M ratios at 12-16 months significantly decreased with increasing length-for-age Z-scores at birth, 6 months, and 9 months (β: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.10, -0.004; β: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.11, -0.006; and β: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, -0.005, respectively).

Overall, our data suggest that programs seeking to improve nutrition should address poor WASH conditions simultaneously, particularly related to household drinking water quality.

Acknowledgments: We would like to express special gratitude to the study participants in southwestern Uganda; the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Nutrition team based at Tufts University in Boston, MA; and the UBCS team based at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. We also wish to acknowledge Wafai Fawzi and Nilupa Gunaratna for their contributions to the UBCS design and implementation.

Financial support: Support for this effort was provided by the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Nutrition at Tufts University, supported by the United States Agency for International Development (award AIDOAA- L-10-00006). C. P. D. was supported in part by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants K24DK104676 and 2P30 DK040561. Funding sources had no role in the publication process including the analysis of data or the writing of the manuscript.

33rd AGUASAN Workshop: “Circular economy – transforming waste into resources”

The 2017 AGUASAcircular-economyN Workshop will focus on analysing successful and failed approaches for transitioning from linear to circular water and sanitation models.

The workshop takes place from June 26 to 30, 2017 in Spiez, Switzerland.

Circular economy has great potential to drive the Water and Sanitation 2030 Agenda forward because it aligns directly with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.3 of improving water quality and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally and SDG 6.4 of substantially increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensuring sustainable withdrawals.

Key questions and issues: 

  • What does the circular economy concept entail?
  • Which flows are relevant?
  • Which stakeholders need to be involved and how?
  • How can demand for recovered products be created?
  • In which context do these stakeholders act?
  • What are the drivers and barriers influencing the transition towards a circular economy?
  • Which circular economy approaches can we learn from for overcoming the identified
  • How should change from linear to circular water and sanitation be managed?
  • How can health risks be managed?
  • How to address public perceptions associated with recycling and reusing of human waste?

Please find the invitation letter, announcement and pre-registration on the website: www.aguasan.ch. Registrations will be accepted until March 19th, 2017.

AGUASAN is an interdisciplinary Swiss Community of Practice (CoP) that brings together a broad range of specialists to promote wider and deeper understanding of key water and sanitation management issues in developing and transition countries. It builds on committed sector professionals from various specialised institutions involved in Swiss development cooperation, humanitarian aid and research. Since 1984, the CoP provides an exemplary, vibrant and most pertinent exchange platform and think-tank serving the water sector, and constitutes an essential link in the innovation and knowledge management strategy of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). Besides convening quarterly knowledge sharing events, every year members of the CoP organise an international AGUASAN Workshop in Switzerland

 

Extra Food Means Nothing to Stunted Kids With Bad Water

Extra Food Means Nothing to Stunted Kids With Bad Water: Health | Source: Adi Narayan, Bloomberg-Jun 12, 2013 |

Aameena Mohammed gives her 20-month-old daughter Daslim Banu plenty to eat. The girl’s mother supplements breast milk with eggs, soup and rice to help her grow. The extra food doesn’t help. Daslim still weighs only as much as a healthy infant half her age.

Mohammed’s home, in one of the poorest districts of the south Indian city of Vellore, is among the 65 percent of India’s homes without running water and safe sewage disposal. Feces and urine collect next to the doorway in an open drain — the source of odor permeating the tin-roofed shack and of the microbes likely retarding the toddler’s growth.

Polluted water runs through a sewer in the Dharavi slum area of Mumbai, India. Only 26 percent of the 6 billion gallons of sewage generated daily in India is treated.

Polluted water runs through a sewer in the Dharavi slum area of Mumbai, India. Only 26 percent of the 6 billion gallons of sewage generated daily in India is treated.

Scientists increasingly suspect that constant exposure to bacteria, virus and parasite-laden fecal contaminants may be frustrating attempts to end malnutrition. In effect, the best diet-based measures to fight chronic hunger in the developing world are being negated by a failure to meet basic human needs: clean water and sanitation.

The problem exists not just in India. A quarter of children indeveloping countries are underweight, and malnutrition is the root cause of the deaths of more than 2 million children annually, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund inNew York. Worldwide, 870 million people are chronically hungry, almost all of them in developing countries.

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Seasonal Effects of Water Quality on Infant and Child Health in India

Seasonal Effects of Water Quality on Infant and Child Health in India, December 2011.

Elizabeth Brainerd, Nidhiya Menon

This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using data on water quality combined with data on the health outcomes of infants and children from the 1992-93, 1998 99, and 2005-06 Demographic and Health Surveys of India. Because fertilizers are applied at specific times in the growing season, the concentrations of agrichemicals in water vary seasonally and by agricultural region as some Indian states plant predominantly summer crops while others plant winter crops.

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Inaugural issue of the Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development online

The International Water Association (IWA) has made the first issue of its  new peer-reviewed Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development, available online, with free access to the full text PDFs of  all articles.

Access to following issues will be by subscription or pay-per-view only, although authors have an option to pay to make their articles open access.

The first issue includes articles about the sanitation ladder, constructed wetlands, WASH approaches in Zimbabwe, wastewater treatment in Brazil, SODIS and water quality field tests.

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WHO – Drinking-water Quality Guidelines, new edition

Launch of the 4th edition of WHO Drinking-water Quality Guidelines at Singapore International Water Week

The latest drinking-water guidelines are now available for download or book order following their global launch at the Singapore International Water Week on 4 July 2011. These Guidelines are the product of systematic revisions over more than five years of extensive consultation with hundreds of experts. This 4th edition expands on key concepts like health-based targets and water safety planning; presents new risk assessments on microbial, chemical and radiological hazards, and addresses emerging issues of public concern like pharmaceuticals in drinking-water.

Link to Full-text

Rochelle Rainey/USAID – From Catchment to Consumer: Emphasizing Water Quality

From Catchment to Consumer:  Emphasizing Water Quality at the National Level. A presentation at the AWWA Water Quality Technology Meeting, November, 2010.

by Rochelle Rainey, USAID Environmental Health Advisor,  rrainey@usaid.gov

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