Tag Archives: WASH systems

USAID WASH updates | Literature review on WASH systems

USAID Updates

Journal Articles

System Approaches to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Literature Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020. Authors: by Nicholas Valcourt 1,2,*,Amy Javernick-Will 1,2,Jeffrey Walters 2,3 and Karl Linden 1,2 – 1-Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder 2-USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership, United State Agency for International Development | 3-College of Engineering, George Fox University, Newberg, OR 97132, USA

We conducted a wide-ranging systematic literature review of systems approaches for WASH across peer-reviewed, grey, and organizational literature. Our results show a myriad of methods, scopes, and applications within the sector, but an inadequate level of information in the literature to evaluate the utility and efficacy of systems approaches for improving WASH service sustainability. Based on this analysis, we propose four recommendations for improving the evidence base including: diversifying methods that explicitly evaluate interconnections between factors within WASH systems; expanding geopolitical applications; improving reporting on resources required to implement given approaches; and enhancing documentation of effects of systems approaches on WASH services.

Social Network Analysis for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH): Application in Governance of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment in India Using a Novel Validation Methodology. Frontiers in Environmental Science, January 2020. Authors: Abishek Sankara Narayan1,2*, Manuel Fischer 1,3 and Christoph Lüthi 1 – 1 Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf, Switzerland, 2 Institute of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

The use of SNA as an appropriate diagnostic tool for planning Citywide Inclusive Sanitation is explored. Missing data is a major problem for SNA in the studies of governance situations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, a novel validation methodology for incomplete SNA data, relying on information from internal and external experts is proposed. SNA and the validation method is then applied to study the governance of decentralized wastewater treatment in four cities of India. The results corroborate key differences between mega and secondary cities in terms of institutions, community engagement and overall sanitation situation including aspects of decentralized wastewater treatment plants, based on the city types.

Menstrual Hygiene Preparedness Among Schools in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of System-and Policy-Level Actions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jan 19. Authors: Sharma S1,2, Mehra – 1 Researcher, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2 MAMTA Health Institute for Mother and Child.

Less than half of the girls were aware of menstruation before menarche. Teachers were a less common source of information about menstruation to girls. Separate toilets for girls were present in around half of the schools.


Video – Transforming health systems: the vital role of water, sanitation and hygiene. WaterAid, January 2020. 

Dan Campbell