Tag Archives: urban sanitation

Article for discussion – Impact of an intervention to improve pit latrine emptying practices in low income urban neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique

We are posting this research article for discussion and below is an abstract and link to the full-text. Please leave any comments or questions about the study in the Comments section:

Impact of an intervention to improve pit latrine emptying practices in low income urban neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 226, May 2020. Authors: Drew Capone, Helen Buxton, Oliver Cumming, Robert Dreibelbis, Jackie Knee, Rassul Nalá, Ian Ross, Joe Brown

Link to full-text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463919310260

Safe fecal sludge management (FSM) – the hygienic emptying, transport, and treatment for reuse or disposal of fecal sludge – is an essential part of safely managed sanitation, especially in towns and cities in low- and middle-income countries with limited sewer coverage.

The need for safe and affordable FSM services has become more acute as cities grow and densify. Hygienic pit-emptying uses equipment that limits direct human exposure with fecal sludge and hygienic transport conveys fecal sludge offsite for treatment.

We evaluated whether a program of on-site sanitation infrastructure upgrades and FSM capacity development in urban Maputo, Mozambique resulted in more hygienic pit-emptying and safe transportation of fecal sludge.

We compared reported emptying practices among multi-household compounds receiving sanitation upgrades with control compounds, both from the Maputo Sanitation (MapSan) trial at 24–36 months after the intervention. Intervention compounds (comprising 1–40 households, median = 3) received a subsidized pour-flush latrine to septic tank system that replaced an existing shared latrine; control compounds continued using existing shared latrines.

We surveyed compound residents and analyzed available municipal data on FSM in the city. Due to the recent construction of the intervention, emptying was more frequent in control compounds: 5.6% (15/270) of intervention compounds and 30% (74/247) of controls had emptied their on-site sanitation system in the previous year.

Among those compounds which had emptied a sanitation facility in the previous year, intervention compounds were 3.8 (95% CI: 1.4, 10) times more likely to have to done so hygienically.

Results suggest that the construction of subsidized pour-flush sanitation systems increased hygienic emptying of fecal sludge in this setting. Further gains in hygienic emptying in urban Maputo may be limited by affordability and physical accessibility.

Cities of tomorrow: improving sanitation and hygiene services in Babati, Tanzania

Cities of tomorrow: improving sanitation and hygiene services in Babati, Tanzania. WASHmatters, December 19, 2018.

One of the initial outcomes from the research is an agreement by town planners to include sanitation and hygiene in future Babati city planning. wateraid

In the town’s ‘spatial master plan’ the chapter on sanitation now reflects some of the research findings, which will help to ensure that the appropriate sanitation services are considered when it comes to planning the growing town.

The next step for the town is to put together an action plan for sanitation and hygiene services based on the agreed scenarios, and then mobilise resources to implement the plan. We will continue to support Babati as they move forward with their action plan.

Whilst urbanisation can present a lot of opportunities, it also throws up many challenges. This research demonstrates the importance of embedding sanitation and hygiene systems in town planning, and will hopefully be used to encourage and influence other growing towns in Tanzania.

It also illustrates that effective planning and stakeholder collaboration can help to ensure Tanzania’s cities of tomorrow have sustainable access to sanitation and hygiene.

Innovations for Urban Sanitation: Adapting Community-led Approaches

Innovations for Urban Sanitation: Adapting Community-led Approaches. Practical Action, June 2018. innovations

Authors – Jamie Myers, Sue Cavill, Samuel Musyoki, Katherine Pasteur and Lucy Stevens

Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement. But how can the community mobilization techniques of CLTS be adapted to the more complex situations and transient populations in urban areas? How can landlords as well as tenants be motivated to provide and use safely managed sanitation?

Innovations for Urban Sanitation has been developed in response to calls from practitioners for practical guidance on how to mobilize communities and improve different parts of the sanitation chain in urban areas. Urban Community-Led Total Sanitation is potentially an important piece of a bigger puzzle. It offers a set of approaches, tools and tactics for practitioners to move towards safely managed sanitation services. The book provides examples of towns and cities in Africa, South Asia and South-East Asia which have used these approaches.

The approach has the potential to contribute not only to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 on water, sanitation and hygiene and SDG 11 on cities but also those concerning the reduction of inequalities and the promotion of inclusive societies. As a pro-poor development strategy, U-CLTS can mobilize the urban poor to take their own collective action and demand a response from others to provide safely managed sanitation, hygiene and water services which leave no one behind.

What does an enabling environment look like for urban sanitation? WSUP Webinar

What does an enabling environment look like for urban sanitation?

This week, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) held a webinar to explore what an enabling environment for urban sanitation really looks like. wsup-logox2

Despite its evident importance to achieving scale, the components of a well-functioning enabling environment for urban sanitation are weakly understood.

This webinar shared lessons from a 5-year programme – funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation – which aimed to catalyse the market for on-site sanitation services in Bangladesh, Kenya and Zambia, through the development of flexible public-private arrangements.

Watch a recording of the webinar.

Planning & Design of Sanitation Systems and Technologies – EAWAG

This is the trailer of the revamped Sanitation-MOOC, which is continuously running on Coursera. Please sign up for the course here: ENGLISH course with SPANISH and HINDI subtitles: http://coursera.org/learn/sanitation ; FRENCH course: http://coursera.org/learn/sanitation-fr .

In this YouTube-channel there is a playlist with all course videos in English and a second playlist with all course videos in French. In the course you can learn more about how to plan for urban sanitation at city and local/community levels, different sanitation system and technology configurations and examples of successful and failed urban sanitation systems in low- and middle-income countries.

Shit-Flow Diagrams – EAWAG

Planning & Design of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, Published on Dec 22, 2016

The future is urban, the future is African (and implications for sanitation)

The future is urban, the future is African (and implications for sanitation). WASH Economics, January 9, 2018.

UNPD brought out their 2017 update to World Population Prospects (WPP) last summer. One striking graph from that got me digging into the data into the 2014 World Urbanisation Prospects (WUP) data.

This may seem slightly off-topic for a WASH economics blog, but understanding population trends is crucial in economics.

For costing purposes, you’ll often find yourself multiplying a per household or per person unit cost, by a number of households or people. future-is-african

That’s true whether you’re estimating the costs of reaching the SDGs at the global level, carrying out strategic financial planning at the  national level, or understanding how to finance a sanitation master plan at the city level.

So, the future is African. This becomes obvious, when looking at the figure below from WPP 2017. A lot can happen between now and 2100, but the trend for the African continent is striking. Even at 2050 (not that far away, scarily) the absolute numbers are striking, with Africa seeing a ~150% increase on its 2010 total population.

Read the complete article.