Tag Archives: subsidies

Doing More with Less: Smarter Subsidies for Water Supply and Sanitation – World Bank

Doing More with Less: Smarter Subsidies for Water Supply and Sanitation. World Bank, August 2019. bank.jpg

In this report, we explore the question of how scarce public resources can be used most effectively to achieve universal delivery of WSS services. To inform our discussion, we analyze subsidies in the sector, including their magnitude, their efficacy in achieving their policy objectives, and the implications of poor design.

We then provide guidance to policy makers on how subsidies can be better designed to improve their efficacy and efficiency in attaining their objectives. Finally, we discuss how to design a subsidy reform package that will have the best chances of success.

Message 1 – Current WSS Subsidies Fail to Achieve Their Objectives Due to Poor Design; They Tend to Be Pervasive, Expensive, Poorly Targeted, Nontransparent, and Distortionary.

Message 2 – The Current Poor Performance of WSS Subsidies Can Be Avoided; New Knowledge and Technologies Are Making it Increasingly Possible for Subsidies to Cost Less and Do More.

Message 3 – To Successfully Reform Subsidies, a Subsidy Reform Package of Four Complementary Elements (in Addition to Improved Subsidy Design) Is Required

The ‘S word:’ Is it time for the sanitation sector to reconsider subsidies?

The ‘S word:’ Is it time for the sanitation sector to reconsider subsidies? Devex, September 2017.

STOCKHOLM — After nearly three decades of broad agreement that hardware subsidies alone do not work in the rural sanitation sector, the practice of using financial incentives to encourage people to build latrines appears to be making a comeback — causing old arguments to flare up again.

The debate over whether or not to use subsidies for sanitation has resurfaced in recent years as governments — as well as water, sanitation, and hygiene experts — grapple with how to deal with the world’s looming sanitation crisis.

Recent statistics reveal that 2.3 billion people do not have access to a decent toilet and many still defecate in the open. Furthermore, in some countries, levels of sanitation access are declining — and this trend is likely to continue as growing populations and increasing urbanization put new strain on the sector’s limited budget.

Experts agree that a radical rethink of how sanitation programs are financed and implemented is needed if the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals — which call for universal access to basic sanitation by 2030 — are to be met.

Read the complete article.

WSSCC – Public Funding for Sanitation: The Many Faces of Sanitation Subsidies

WSSCC – Public Funding for Sanitation: The Many Faces of Sanitation Subsidies, 2009. (pdf)

Access to safe sanitation would, for some 2.5 billion fellow citizens without it, improve their health, dignity, local environment and economic well-being. While most people would agree that the poor and vulnerable should be supported to obtain sanitation services in ways that promote social equity, are people-centred, participatory and affordable, the debate on how to do it often becomes contentious. Some people propose infrastructure-based hardware subsides; others oppose them.

As “Public Funding for Sanitation: The Many faces of Sanitation Subsidies” explains, the discussion on appropriate sanitation financing mechanisms for the poor goes far beyond the use of hardware subsidies. It must take into account aspects of hardware and software, capital and operational expenditure, the type of sanitation system being built, and, ultimately, the users of the sanitation system. This primer assists the reader in understanding the global debate on subsidies and sanitation financing, and provides guidance on how to select the most appropriate funding arrangements for sanitation programming in different situations.

Ghana – Ministry Provides Subsidies for Household Toilets

The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development says it has a subsidy facility reduce the cost of providing household toilet facilities in a bid to reduce pressure on neighbourhood and public toilets.

This was announced by the Director of Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate of the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Mr. Demedeme Naa Lenason

He reminded landlords that it is an offence not to provide these toilet facilities for households and that steps were being taking to ensure that recalcitrant landlords are made to face the full rigors of the law.

According to the 2000 Population and Housing Census more than 20% of Ghanaians do not have any form of latrines and therefore resort to open defecation which posses serious environmental and health threats to society.

Speaking recently at a media briefing in Accra on “Health Menace of Public Latrines” Mr. Lenason said that the 2000 census revealed that 31.45% of households in Ghana use public latrines as compared to 8.5% using Water Closet , 22% pit latrine, 6.9% KVIP , bucket or pan latrine 4% and with 6.9% attending nature’s call in other people’s houses.

“Enhancing access to adequate Environmental Sanitation is known to be associated with improved quality of human resource and poverty reduction through its impact on favorable health outcomes and increased productivity,” he said.

Mr. Lenason indicated that the Ministry’s Environmental Sanitation Policy of 1999 is unequivocal on households and public toilets; the policy states that at least 90% of a population should have access to acceptable domestic toilet while the remaining 10% has access to hygienic toilets.

According to him hygienic public toilets are provided for the transient population in all areas of intense public activities such as markets, shopping areas, transport terminals, etc but unfortunately most people in Ghana use it as their permanent places of convenience.

He said with the increasing pressure on these public toilet facilities it is common to see neighborhood toilets become full and overflowing which often leads to their closure , thus depriving the users this essential service.

“The facilities are often messy, smelling, unhygienic and dirty, users will then have no other option than to resort to other unacceptable options such as “free ranging” he added.

The Director indicated that his outfit has over the years pursued strategies aimed at minimizing the health impact of poor neighborhood public latrines and the wide gap that exist in the access to sanitation.

Some of these interventions includes increase in participation of the private sector in the management of existing public toilets, promoting better and modern technologies , de-emphasing neighborhood public toilets to force landlords to provide households toilets for tenants, rehabilitating and conversion of existing public toilets to more modern ones .

In addition his outfit is working to strengthen institutions that have responsibilities for the enforcement of sanitation laws and development control e.g Environmental Health, Development Control Units of the various MMDAs and also enforcing standards and conditions of franchise agreements for public toilets through effective monitoring.

Government and its development partners have made large investments in the water and sanitation sector with the aim of accelerating the provision of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation in both rural and urban communities to enhance the achievement of the MDGs particularly goal 7 which aims at halving by 2015 the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe water and basic sanitation.

Currently close to 2.6 billion people worldwide lack sanitation facilities and most of them are children.

Source – Public Agenda, Accra

India, Goa: Govt planning to subsidise sewage connections

Chief Minister, Digambar Kamat [of the Indian state of Goa] has announced that the government would […] subsidise sewage connections [in] Margao as he made an impassioned plea to the household owners to connect their septic tanks and soakpits to the sewage plant and avoid a health hazard.

Expressing his commitment to complete the Margao sewage project on a priority basis, the Chief Minister also promised to upgrade the 7.5 MLD sewage treatment plant and liberate the residents of Sirvodem from foul odour.
[T]he Chief Minister said his government will not hesitate to subsidize sewage connections to make the people go for the new connections. He, however, warned that households discharging their sewage waters in the open drains will be punished with disconnection with the water supply.

Source: Herald, 11 Dec 2008

South Asian Sanitation edition of Waterlines

There are more people in south Asia without adequate sanitation than anywhere else in the world. Nevertheless, this is a region where great progress is being made, where there is much to learn about approaches that work, and where the optimism is tangible.

The July 2008 edition of Waterlines, which includes papers from IRC/WaterAid’s South Asian Sanitation conference in January 2008, features some of the most promising approaches. How has the replication of the Orangi small-bore sewerage project to other Pakistani cities worked out? Should total sanitation campaigns always be free of hardware subsidy? Learn about using teachers to run village sanitation campaigns. What are the health impacts in open-defecation free villages, one year after the campaign? These and other questions are discussed in this edition.

Single hardcopies of the July edition (cost £12.50) can be ordered from Practical Action, publishinginfo@practicalaction.org.uk

Non-subscribers can download articles (US$ 9 each) here

Waterlines – VOLUME 27 NUMBER 3 JULY 2008 – Contents

  • Crossfire: ‘Community-led total sanitation is the best method of achieving sustainable sanitation for all in rural areas’ – ARUMUGAM KALIMUTHU and YAKUB HOSSAIN
  • Sanitation and hygiene in South Asia: Progress and challenges – CHRISTINE SIJBESMA
  • Subsidy and sustainability in urban sanitation: The case of Quetta Katchi Abadis Environment Management Programme – SYED AYUB QUTUB, NASEEMA SALAM, KHALID SHAH and DAANISH ANJUM
  • School-led sanitation promotion: Helping achieve total sanitation outcomes in Azad Jammu and Kashmir – FAROOQ KHAN, RABIA T. SYED, MOHAMMED RIAZ, DEIRDRE CASELLA and VICTOR KINYANJUI
  • Cross-sectional health indicator study of open defecation-free villages in Madhya Pradesh, India – TAPAS CHAKMA, SAM GODFREY, J. BHATT, P.V. RAO, P. MESHRAM and S.B. SINGH