Tag Archives: food hygiene

Development and Application of Novel Caregiver Hygiene Behavior Measures Relating to Food Preparation, Handwashing, and Play Environments in Rural Kenya

Development and Application of Novel Caregiver Hygiene Behavior Measures Relating to Food Preparation, Handwashing, and Play Environments in Rural KenyaInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 201815(9), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091994

Exposure to fecal pathogens results in both acute and chronic sequalae in young children. Diarrhea causes nearly 20% of all under-five mortality, while even sub-clinical enteric infections may lead to growth shortfalls. Stunting affects nearly 165 million children globally and results in lifelong and intergenerational effects for the world’s poorest populations. ijerph-logo

Caregiver hygiene behaviors, such as those surrounding handwashing and food preparation, play a critical role in exposure to fecal pathogens; standard metrics to assess these behaviors are warranted to provide a means of quantifying the impact these behaviors have on enteric infections and to evaluate the success or failure of interventions and programs.

This paper documents the development of three novel caregiver hygiene behavior measures: hygienic food preparation and storage, handwashing at key times, and provision of a safe play environment for children under two years.

We developed these measures using formative qualitative work, survey creation and deployment theoretically underpinned by the COM-B model of behavior change, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

The final measure for hygienic food preparation and storage includes 10 items across two factors; the final measure for handwashing at key times includes 15 items across three factors; and the final measure for safe play environment contains 13 items across three factors.

Future researchers may employ these measures to assess caregiver behaviors in other populations, identify specific behavioral dimensions that should be the focus of interventions, and evaluate interventions and programs

Why has Zimbabwe banned street food?

Why has Zimbabwe banned street food? TRT World, January 9, 2017.

The government is trying to control a typhoid outbreak caused by poor sanitation and unregulated water supplies. The ban on street food has been put in place to prevent the water-borne disease from spreading. 

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Under the ban, food, including fruit and vegetable, can no longer be sold at road side stalls.

How does the ban work?

The ban was imposed in Zimbabwe’s capital and most populous city, Harare.

Under the ban, food, including fruits and vegetables, can no longer be sold at road side stalls.

But the implementation of the order maybe a problem as the city does not have the capacity or the manpower to enforce the ban, a local government official said.

“The city of Harare itself also needs a very strong environment division. I think this has been absent and the municipal police must also do their work. I think those two, if we can have the right skills in those sectors, we should have order in Harare,” Zimbabwe’s Minister of Local Government Saviour Kasukuwere said.

Read the complete article.

No evidence that current sanitation interventions stop faecal exposure

A systematic review [1] of 29 studies found “little to no effect from sanitation interventions” on “faecal-oral transmission of enteric and other pathogens”. The transmission pathways reviewed included “faecal pathogens or indicator bacteria in drinking water, hand contamination, sentinel toys, food, household and latrine surfaces and soil, as well as flies and observations of human faeces”.

There was some evidence showing the association of sanitation “with reductions in flies and a small effect on observations of faeces”. There was also evidence showing “an inverse relationship between the distance of a water supply from a latrine and level of faecal contamination of such water supply”.

The authors of the review conclude that current sanitation efforts in low-income countries are ineffective and unable to prevent contamination along well-known pathways. This may be because “interventions often fail to achieve universal coverage or use”, which is the subject of another systematic review [2].

As expected from researchers, they are also recommend that more rigorous studies are required to investigate the impact of sanitation interventions on multiple transmission pathways.

Unfortunately this important study is not available as an open access article.

[1] Sclar GD, Penakalapati G, Amato HK, Garn JV, Alexander K, Freeman MC, Clasen T. Assessing the impact of sanitation on indicators of fecal exposure along principal transmission pathways : a systematic review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2016 Oct 1.DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.09.021

[2] Garn, J.V., Sclar, G.D., Freeman, M.C., Alexander, K.T., Penakalapati, G., Brooks, P.,Rehfuess, E.A., Clasen, T.F. The impact of sanitation interventions on latrine coverage and latrine use : a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2016 Oct 11.DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.10.001

Food hygiene: Safe food, healthy child

Published on Sep 5, 2014

This video is one of the promotional materials used in the SHARE-funded food hygiene intervention trial in Nepal, conducted by Om Prasad Gautam, PhD Fellow, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. Copyrights reserved with O Gautam.

You can read more information about this study here: http://www.shareresearch.org/NewsAndE…

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Food Hygiene

This issue contains studies and resources on food hygiene from 2012 and 2013. Included are studies on weaning foods, food hygiene in households, food hygiene in schools and informal sector street-food vendors. The World Health Organization estimates that unsafe food kills 1.2 million people over age 5 in Southeast Asia and Africa each year. This statistic makes it clear that food hygiene is a critical issue to address.

REPORTS/BLOGS

Improving the Lives of People Living with HIV through WASH: Water Sanitation and Hygiene, 2012. AIDSTAR-One. (Food hygiene chapter) | (Complete manual)
AIDSTAR-One has recently finalized a new training resource that aims to address problems around water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) at health facilities to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV.

Insights from a Food Hygiene Intervention Study in Nepal, 2013. O Gautam.(Blog link)
This study aims to implement a simple, feasible and replicable food hygiene intervention and assess the effect of this intervention on mothers’ food hygiene practices, and to assess the impact of the interventions on the level of microbiological contamination in food and diarrhoeal diseases burden. The study will also explore how food hygiene interventions can be integrated into nutrition, health and WASH policy and programs in Nepal.

Integrating Water, Sanitation,and Hygiene into Nutrition Programming, 2013. WASHplus. (Full text)
This publication discusses “small doable actions” to improve food hygiene and other water, sanitation and hygiene issues.

Continue reading

Measuring WASH and food hygiene practices – post 2015 goals

A new paper reviews the case for the importance of hand, food and menstrual hygiene as candidates for post-MDG goal and target setting. Of the three themes, handwashing with soap at key times is the one which has been the subject of most research and therefore is associated with the strongest evidence base.

The paper was written by a team from the Hygiene Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) under contract to USAID. It is an output of the Hygiene Working Group, one of the four Post-2015 Monitoring Working Groups set up by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). The purpose of the background paper is to stimulate and inform discussion, but not to make any claims for consensus nor suggest that any of the definitions, indicators, goals or targets proposed are final.

In 2013 the United Nations General Assembly will be asked to decide what development goals the international community should seek beyond 2015. The decision will be made based on a proposal that will be submitted to the General Assembly. This proposal will include goals, targets and indicators pertaining to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). The indicators proposed will reflect principles associated with the human right to drinking water and sanitation.

Related web sites:

Full reference:

Biran, A., et al, 2012. Background paper on measuring WASH and food hygiene practices : definition of goals to be tackled post 2015 by the Joint Monitoring Programme. London, UK, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Available at: <http://www.irc.nl/page/72911>

Water, sanitation and hygiene standards in schools in low-cost settings

The World Health Organization (WHO) is seeking assistance from those with suitable experience to review the draft – Water, sanitation and hygiene standards in schools in low-cost settings Draft- WASH Standards in Schools.  A “Response Form” which details the type of review being sought g can be found here Response Form .  Responses from interested individuals/institutions should be sent by 28 February 2009.

The guidelines deal specifically with water supply (water quality, quantity and access), hygiene promotion, sanitation, control of vector-borne disease, cleaning and waste disposal and food storage and preparation. They are designed for use in low-cost settings where simple and affordable measures can make a significant improvement to hygiene and health.

The draft guidelines have been edited by John Adams, Jamie Bartram, Yves Chartier and Jackie Sims.