Tag Archives: fecal sludge management

An Update on Fecal Sludge Management in Humanitarian Situations, October 24, 2019

Please contact us if you have other studies and resources to add to this listing.

An Update on Fecal Sludge Management in Humanitarian Situations, October 24, 2019

Journal articles

A Traditional Closed-Loop Sanitation System in a Chronic Emergency: A Qualitative Study from Afghanistan. Water, February 2019. The use of closed-loop sanitation systems (CLSS), or reuse-oriented sanitation systems, has increased in recent years, and such systems have been successfully implemented in many parts of the world. However, no research has explored Traditional CLSS (T-CLSS) for a long-term humanitarian situation. This study explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of T-CLSS in peri-urban and rural contexts in three different provinces in Afghanistan.

Experimental Determination of Moisture Sorption Isotherm of Fecal Sludge. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts, February 2019. Studies on dewatering performances of FS are limited. The physical water distribution of such matrices is not fully understood, limiting the progress in the development and optimization of FS dewatering technologies. The objective of this study is to present a gravimetric method intended to assess the dewatering characteristics and associated modelling of FS through moisture sorption isotherms.

Assessment of Recommendation for the Containment and Disinfection of Human Excreta in Cholera Treatment Centers. Water, January 2019. These findings suggest that the use of 30% hydrated lime suspensions or 2% chlorine solutions may offer a simple public health protection measure for the containment, safe handling, and disinfection of human excreta during humanitarian emergencies.

Development of a Field Laboratory for Monitoring of Fecal-Sludge Treatment Plants. Water, August 2018. In urban humanitarian-aid operations, safe treatment of fecal sludge is highly important. While currently field-deployable fecal-sludge treatment plants are being developed, field-ready analytical equipment for process-control and public health monitoring is missing. Within the Microbial Sludge Quality project, a field laboratory was developed. SWS

Reports

Human Waste-to-fuel Briquettes as a Sanitation and Energy Solution for Refugee Camps and Informal Urban Settlements. IWMI, 2018. Chapter 2 in the report Recovering Bioenergy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gender Dimensions, Lessons and Challenges, the chapter discusses the human waste-to-charcoal briquettes innovation: (i) Provision of sanitation service through the installation of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in dwellings and (ii) The waste-to-fuel briquettes innovation.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Innovation Catalogue. Elrha, 2019. The Humanitarian WASH Innovation Catalogue is the first of its kind. It offers a unique overview of some of the most promising new solutions in WASH and is designed to help practitioners decide which innovations could help them solve their most pressing problems.

Decision Making and the Use of Guidance on Sanitation Systems and Faecal Sludge Management in the First Phase of Rapid-Onset Emergencies. Elrha Humanitarian Innovation FundBORDA, 2018. One of the report’s recommendations is that existing resources that were highlighted in this research should utilize the findings and conclusions to strengthen their FSM components, particularly the Sphere Guidance and the WASH Cluster.

Rethinking Faecal Sludge Management in Emergency Settings: Decision Support Tools and Smart Technology Applications for Emergency Sanitation. CRC Press, Jul 24, 2019. Order info and summary: This study focused on the development of a smart emergency toilet termed the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) smart toilet to address the limitation in technical options. This toilet is based on the eSOS concept that takes into account the entire sanitation chain.

Others

Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies – The Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies provides a structured and user-friendly manual and planning guide for sanitation solutions in emergency settings. It supports and enables decision making by providing the necessary framework for developing a sanitation system design.

WHO Sanitation system fact sheets. These fact sheets provide guidance on some of the most frequently-used sanitation systems. Each describes the applicability of the system in different contexts; design, operation and maintenance considerations; and mechanisms for protecting public health at each step of the sanitation service chain.

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation. World Bank, 2019. This report builds on four case studies (SOIL – Haiti, x-runner – Peru, Clean Team – Ghana, Sanergy – Kenya) to assess the role CBS can play in a portfolio of solutions for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS) services. The authors conclude that CBS approaches should be part of the CWIS portfolio of solutions, especially for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate.

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low-income settlements. Waterlines, July 2019. The potential viability of CBS services has been assessed for urban informal settlements in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The viability of CBS services in these settlements was found to be most influenced by the current availability of basic sanitation facilities, the unfamiliarity with paying for sanitation services, and the universally adopted practice of anal cleansing with water.

Sanivation: Providing a range of employment opportunities for refugees. IFC, April 2019. Chapter 3 in Private Sector & Refugees Pathways to Scale.

Compendium of Innovative Sanitation Technologies. Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP), December 2018. The Compendium presents various innovations in technologies both on field and in laboratories. These technologies span across the faecal sludge value chain comprising user interface, containment, collection, transportation, treatment, and reuse. It provides reader of the Compendium with various options for implementation at the ground level contextual to demographic and geo-climatic situations.

Websites

Operational Collaborative Tool for Ongoing Practices in Urgent Sanitation​ (OCTOPUS) – Fecal sludge disposal and treatment is a significant problem in rapid onset emergencies. Low consideration is given to this issue when deploying emergency responses, and while general guidance and resources exist, improper decisions are often made.  To address this issue, Solidarités International has created the first collaborative platform called OCTOPUS. Intended for sanitation practitioners,

 

Collaborative Bibliography on FSM in Humanitarian Situations

Dear Colleagues:

We have made a quick start on a FSM bibliography at the link below, and since such this is such an important topic, we hope to update it regularly with the latest research, news, studies, etc. Please contact us if have other studies and resources that should be added.

Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) in Humanitarian Situations – draft, November 30, 2018

News

Gates Foundation and Global Partners Announce Commitments to Advance Commercialization of Disruptive, Off-Grid Toilet Technologies. Gates Foundation, November 2018.
“This Expo showcases, for the first time, radically new, decentralized sanitation technologies and products that are business-ready,” said Bill Gates during the opening plenary of the Reinvented Toilet Expo. “It’s no longer a question of if we can reinvent the toilet and other sanitation systems. It’s a question of how quickly this new category of off-grid solutions will scale.”

Emergencies headlines from around the world. Oxfam, November 2018.
Bangladesh – Our industrial scale sewage treatment plant is open for business. It has the capacity to take 40 cubic metres of human waste per day (thus catering for 150,000 people),and is the largest ever such system to have been built in a refugee camp. Built to a German design it took seven months to construct, but the initial outlay will be more than paid back by the low operational and maintenance costs. It represents a big step forward in our ability to deal with fecal sludge in situ rather than carrying it away, and we expect to be replicating it in future crises.

Events
5th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference, February 17-22, 2019, Cape Town, South Africa – This conference will provide the opportunity for sector professionals, governments, policy-makers, utilities, development partners, investors, industries and service providers to coordinate, develop and share learning to provide affordable and workable solutions at scale. This conference will focus on practical solutions to sustainably manage the whole non-sewered sanitation service chain, covering the toilet, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and reuse, as an essential component of city-wide urban sanitation services.

FSM In Humanitarian Situations
Preparing to Be Unprepared: Decision Making and the Use of Guidance on Sanitation Systems and Faecal Sludge Management in the First Phase of Rapid-Onset Emergencies. HIF-Elrha, BORDA, WASTE and Solidarités International, March 2018.
The first section investigates and compiles what options have been proven for applications in the emergency context. The second section discusses the driving forces behind the decisions made on fecal sludge disposal in first phase emergencies at the field level.

Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies. EAWAG, 2018.
This Compendium compiles a wide range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document and gives a systematic overview of existing and emerging sanitation technologies. In addition, it gives concise information on key decision criteria for each technology, facilitating the combination of technologies to come up with full sanitation system solutions, all linked to relevant cross-cutting issues.

Development of a Field Laboratory for Monitoring of Fecal-Sludge Treatment Plants. Water, August 2018.
In urban humanitarian-aid operations, safe treatment of fecal sludge is highly important. While currently field-deployable fecal-sludge treatment plants are being developed, field-ready analytical equipment for process-control and public health monitoring is missing. Within the Microbial Sludge Quality project, a field laboratory was developed.

Chemical disinfectants. GWPP, November 2018.
Safe water, sanitation, and hygiene provision and promotion are critical elements of emergency response to ensure human safety, health, and dignity. Disinfectants, such as chlorine, are widely used in emergency response to treat water for drinking. However, excreta is rarely treated in emergencies; the current focus of response activities is to provide safe, clean, and private sanitation facilities. In this chapter, we provide a summary of knowledge on disinfection of excreta in emergencies and recommendations for future research.

A pilot-scale microwave technology for sludge sanitization and drying. Science of The Total Environment, December 2017.
Microwave-based technology is promising option for treatment of faecal sludge, septic sludge and waste activated sludge. It is rapid and efficient in sludge sanitization (pathogen reduction) and drying (volume reduction up to 96%).

Low-cost Bangladeshi innovation at Rohingya refugee camp saves lives. CGTN, March 2018. The organization experimented with a simple filtration system, through which fecal sludge is collected mechanically using suction pumps and discharged through a series of filtration chambers to separate liquids from solids.  “The effluent is finally treated by a natural process in a ‘constructed wetland’ through the roots of Canna indica plants. After a month, the digested sludge converts to become compost,” Jahan explained.

Continue reading

WSUP – The bottom line: understanding the business of sanitation

This game was produced by Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) as an exploration of some of the challenges around involving the private sector in sanitation service delivery in cities. wsup-logox2

In the fictional African city of Bafini, 80% of residents have no access to a sewer connection, relying instead on toilets with pits or septic tanks.

This creates a need for better faecal waste collection services, and a market opportunity for a smart entrepreneur.

You run a waste management business in Bafini, and have just decided to expand into faecal sludge management. You have a positive cash flow, which you will need to maintain.

Play the game.

We make fake poo in a laboratory – to improve sanitation in Bangladesh

We make fake poo in a laboratory – to improve sanitation in Bangladesh. Phys.org, July 12, 2017.

Across the world, almost three billion people do not have the luxury of a flushing toilet. Instead they rely on static sanitation systems, like pit latrines to deal with their waste. As these are not often connected to a sewer, they require manual emptying and disposal.

Poor understanding of the risks involved means that untreated sludge is often thrown into nearby fields and rivers. The impact of this can be devastating.

Manual emptying. Credit: sswm.info

Manual emptying. Credit: sswm.info

Yet is is estimated that every dollar invested in better sanitation returns up to US$5.50 in social and economic benefits. These come through increased productivity, reduced healthcare costs and prevention of illness and early death.

A crucial part of improving sanitation lies in researching and developing simpler, more efficient ways of treating sludge in places where a sewerage and centralised waste water treatment is not available.

My research is part of a partnership with the engineering firm Buro Happold (BH) who were asked by WaterAid Bangladesh to find a sludge treatment technology which was effective, practical and affordable.

After considering options which included biogas and pit additives – products used to try and reduce sludge volume – the company opted for unplanted drying beds. They are simple in design and make use of the reasonable amount of sunshine in Bangladesh.

Read the complete article.

USAID & other presentations from the 2017 Fecal Sludge Management conference

There are many interesting presentations, now online, from the 2017 Fecal Sludge Management Conference in India and the link to all of the presentations is at:

Below are links to presentations from IUWSASH, the Toilet Board Coalition and others:

 

Don’t think of treatment plants: building factories to meet the sanitation SDGs

Rwanda  - Pivot fecal sludge treatment 1

Pivot Works factory in Kigali, Rwanda. From left to right: Fecal sludge receiving tank, flocculation tanks, mechanical dewatering machine. Photo: Ashley Muspratt

4,900 days from now, in 2030, the Sustainable Development Goals will expire.  If that feels like a long time, consider the work ahead.  And by work, I dare not attempt to wrap my head around all 17 goals; I refer specifically to the WASH goal – SDG #6 – and even more specifically to the sanitation targets.

From my admittedly invested perch – I run a sanitation company – the most exciting thing about transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs is the belated inclusion of treatment.  There’s finally recognition that “improved sanitation” without treatment is not improved sanitation.  The WASH community’s new mandate: “halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally” (SDG 6.3).  But consider that the urban population still requiring “safely managed sanitation” today stands at 3.214 billion [1]. Serving them entails expanding safe management, i.e., some form of treatment, to 625,000 people each day for the next 4,900 days.  That’s basically a city a day.

How can we achieve such a massive expansion of safe fecal sludge and wastewater management?  For starters, let’s stop building treatment plants. Heresy? There’s a better way.

Continue reading

Fecal Sludge Management in Madagascar – WASHplus