Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of diarrhoea among children younger than 5 years: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infectious Diseases, October 30, 2019.
Authors – GBD 2017 Diarrhoeal Disease Collaborators: Collaborators listed at the end of the Article
An excerpt – Diarrhea was responsible for an estimated 533 768 deaths among children younger than 5 years globally in 2017, a rate of 78·4 deaths (70·1–87·1) per 100 000 children. The diarrhea mortality rate ranged between countries by over 685 deaths per 100 000 children. Diarrhea mortality per 100 000 globally decreased by 69·6% between 1990 and 2017.
Among the risk factors considered in this study, those responsible for the largest declines in the diarrhea mortality rate were reduction in exposure to unsafe sanitation (13·3% decrease, 11·2–15·5), childhood wasting (9·9% decrease, 9·6–10·2), and low use of oral rehydration solution (6·9% decrease, 4·8–8·4).
Diarrhea mortality has declined substantially since 1990, although there are variations by country. Improvements in sociodemographic indicators might explain some of these trends, but changes in exposure to risk factors—particularly unsafe sanitation, childhood growth failure, and low use of oral rehydration solution—appear to be related to the relative and absolute rates of decline in diarrhea mortality.
Although the most effective interventions might vary by country or region, identifying and scaling up the interventions aimed at preventing and protecting against diarrhea that have already reduced diarrhea mortality could further avert many thousands of deaths due to this illness.
Articles in this series can be downloaded at no charge, but registration is required:
Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhea. Lancet, April 12, 2013
The Lancet Series on Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, led by Aga Khan University, Pakistan, provides evidence for integrated control efforts for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. The first paper assesses the global burden of these two illnesses, comparing and contrasting them, and includes new estimates of severe disease and updated mortality estimates for 2011. Findings from the second paper show that a set of highly cost-effective interventions can prevent most diarrhoea deaths and nearly two thirds of pneumonia deaths by 2025, if delivered at scale. Furthermore, the paper estimates what the cost of scale up will be. The third paper presents the results of consultations with several hundred frontline workers in high-burden countries and explores the barriers and enablers they face in dealing with these two diseases and potential ways forward. The final paper represents a call to action and discusses the global and country-level remedies needed to eliminate preventable deaths from these illnesses by 2025.
Global burden of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia
Christa L Fischer Walker, Igor Rudan, Li Liu, Harish Nair, Evropi Theodoratou, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Katherine L O’Brien, Harry Campbell, Robert E Black
Research on the Relationship of Population Density and Neighborhood-Level Sanitation Access to Fecal-Associated Health Impacts
- RFA #: WASH2013-001
- Status: Upcoming
- Posted: February 25, 2013
- Questions Due: Comments Due: March 11, 2013
TRAction is anticipating the release of an RFA to support research on the relationship between population density and the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions on diarrhea and other fecal-associated infections.
Before releasing the RFA for applications, TRAction is asking for program implementers, researchers, and others knowledgeable about the WASH field to provide comments on the RFA. Comments may address other relevant background information or resources that could be included in the RFA, suggestions on research questions or design, application guidelines, or other RFA components that could benefit from a suggested revision.
Community case management of diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia: Tracking science to policy and practice in sub-Saharan Africa, 2012.
Community case management (CCM) increases access to treatment to those beyond the reach of health facilities and has the potential to more equitably address the three largest causes of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia.
Based on data from UNICEF country offices, we provide a profile of government policies and implementation of CCM diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria for sick children aged 2 months-5 years across sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. This offers an aggregated analysis and disaggregated tables for subSaharan Africa and where possible we explain the status of outliers based on correspondence with UNICEF country offices. We also compare our findings with previous data collected by Countdown 2015 to describe trends in CCM pneumonia policy and implementation for sub-Saharan Africa. The following bullet points represent key findings.
- The majority of governments in sub-Saharan Africa have policies supporting CCM of diarrhea, malaria or pneumonia, yet important exceptions remain. Moreover, even when supportive CCM policies exist, CCM programs are not always implemented, and far fewer are implemented at scale.
- Even as CCM pneumonia lags the furthest behind, significant change has occurred. The number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa with supportive CCM pneumonia policies has more than doubled since 2005.
Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2012, 13:182 doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-182
Hans J Overgaard, et al.
Background – Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes. Poor household water management and sanitation are therefore potential determinants of both diseases. Little is known of the role of stored water for the combined risk of diarrhea and dengue, yet a joint role would be important for developing integrated control and management efforts. Even less is known of the effect of integrating control of these diseases in school settings. The objective of this trial was to investigate whether interventions against diarrhea and dengue will significantly reduce diarrheal disease and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools.
Methods/design – This is a 2×2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. Eligible schools were rural primary schools in La Mesa and Anapoima municipalities, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Eligible pupils were school children in grades 0 to 5. Schools were randomized to one of four study arms: diarrhea interventions (DIA); dengue interventions (DEN); combined diarrhea and dengue interventions (DIADEN); and control (C). Schools were allocated publicly in each municipality (strata) at the start of the trial, obviating the need for allocation concealment. The primary outcome for diarrhea is incidence rate of diarrhea in school children and for dengue it is density of adult female Aedes aegypti per school. Approximately 800 pupils from 34 schools were enrolled in the trial with eight schools in the DIA arm, nine in the DEN, eight in the DIADEN, and nine in the control arms. The trial status as of June 2012 was:
completed baseline data collections; enrollment, randomization, and allocation of schools. The trial was funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Lazos de Calandaima Foundation.
Discussion – This is the first trial investigating the effect of a set of integrated interventions to control both dengue and diarrhea. This is also the first trial to study the combination of diarrhea-dengue
disease control in school settings.
Pneumonia and diarrhoea: Tackling the deadliest diseases for the world’s poorest children, 2012.
This report makes a remarkable and compelling argument for tackling two of the leading killers of children under age 5: pneumonia and diarrhoea. By 2015 more than 2 million child deaths could be averted if national coverage of costeffective interventions for pneumonia and diarrhoea were raised to the level of the richest 20 per cent in the highest mortality countries. This is an achievable goal for many countries as they work towards more ambitious targets such as universal coverage.
Pneumonia and diarrhoea are leading killers of the world’s youngest children, accounting for 29 per cent of deaths among children under age 5 worldwide – or more than 2 million lives lost each year (figure 1). This toll is highly concentrated in the poorest regions and countries and among the
most disadvantaged children within these societies. Nearly 90 per cent of deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhoea occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
Most kids in Cameroon battle diarrhea from time to time, but the good news is that it’s often caused by infections that don’t last long and usually are more disruptive than dangerous.
Still, it’s important to know what to do to relieve and even prevent diarrhea. In an interview conducted by Elvis Teke, Dr. Serge EMALEU paints a picture of the disease and how it can be controlled.
Elvis Teke: What are the most common causes of Diarrhea?
Dr. Serge EMALEU: Diarrhea — frequent runny or watery bowel movements (poop) — is usually brought on by gastrointestinal (GI) infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites.
The specific germs that cause diarrhea can vary among geographic regions depending on their level of sanitation, economic development, and hygiene. For example, in our country with poor sanitation and where human waste is sometime used as fertilizer often have outbreaks of diarrhea when intestinal bacteria or parasites contaminate crops or drinking water.
Read More – Cameroon RT