Tag Archives: container-based sanitation

X-runner – finalist in the GIE Digital Pitch contest

Global Innovation Exchange – Finalist in the 2018 Digital Pitch Contest

x-runner – We provide a non-conventional sanitation solution for families who live in informal human settlements in Lima and lack access to water and safely managed sanitation.

Innovation Description

X-runner offers a sustainable sanitation solution that provides urban households with a portable dry toilet and a responsible service that removes and converts the human waste into compost, thus improving the daily lives, health and environment of thousands of individuals. xrunner

Our non-conventional sanitation solution consists of a Container Based Sanitation (CBS) system which provides homes with a dry toilet of high technology and also includes the collection and responsible treatment of the generated waste and a continuous customer service support.

Once a week we pick up the feces from every household or respective collection points and bring them to the treatment plant, where they are transformed into compost, an ecological fertilizer. This is how we avoid that the families are in direct contact with the fecal waste as well as the accumulation or inadequate management of the feces.

Our clients pay a monthly fee of 12$ for the pick-up service. But as we offer this service to low-income households, it is subsidized by grants and prize money from international foundations.

We are also a founding part of the CBS Alliance which seeks to formalize CBS as a widely accepted and endorsed approach among municipalities and regulators, to help non-conventional sanitation services to reach scale, and to achieve sustainable impact in urban areas around the world. (http://www.cbsa.global/#/)

The world can’t wait for sewers: Is container-based sanitation a viable answer to the global sanitation crisis?

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For many people living in low-income urban areas, a flush toilet or sewer connection is little more than a pipe dream. Often the infrastructure doesn’t exist or can’t be constructed in such densely populated or topographically challenging areas, or service fees are simply too high.

The world needs a viable, high-quality alternative to piped sanitation that can reach people living in these areas – like container-based sanitation (CBS) businesses. These enterprises are uniquely suited to the challenges of serving dense urban populations, but are not without their challenges.

This new joint report by EY and Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) considers those obstacles, presenting insights aiming to improve CBS businesses’ prospects for success.

The report focuses on Clean Team Ghana, a CBS business set up and managed by WSUP. Following the CBS model, Clean Team provides customers with stand-alone toilets that store waste in sealable, removable cartridges that can then be safely removed and taken to a treatment or resource recovery centre.

But the business has faced challenges; negative associations with old-style, poorly managed bucket latrines can be hard to overcome, and questions remain over whether the CBS model can be reliably scaled as a successful business.

With Clean Team having grappled with these challenges in Kumasi for several years, WSUP engaged EY to help, with a team from Enterprise Growth Services (EY’s not-for-profit practice dedicated to supporting social impact businesses in low-income countries) working with Clean Team to identify how it could achieve profitability and get to scale.

The outcomes of that analysis are presented in this report in the form of insights aimed at improving prospects for success – not just for Clean Team but for other CBS enterprises worldwide, offering the potential for them to achieve the scale and impact necessary for CBS to gain official recognition as an improved sanitation option.

“We hope this report provides water, sanitation and hygiene stakeholders with a blueprint for taking CBS to the next level, gaining the recognition that it deserves as an improved sanitation option and scaling it as an important contributor to the achievement of SDG targets.”

Jon Shepard, Director – Enterprise Growth Services, EY & Neil Jeffery, CEO – Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor

Container-Based Sanitation Solutions Webinar – Stanford Water Health and Development

Published on Apr 11, 2016

On March 17, 2016 Water Health and Development hosted a webinar discussing Container Based Sanitation Solutions

 

Recent sanitation research

Research Updates

Disease Control Priorities: Diarrheal DiseasesUniversity of Washington, Dept. of Global Health, 2016. Diarrheal diseases remain good indicators of the stage of development of communities in low and middle income families because of the impact of the determinants of diarrheal morbidity and mortality, which include safe drinking water and sanitation.

Should Public Toilets Be Part of Urban Sanitation Solutions for Poor Families Living in Slums? Emory University Center for Global Safe WASH, 2016. This policy note recommends that in order to protect the public health of families living in urban slums, the government of Ghana should reform its current policies regarding public toilets.

Domestic Resource Mobilization in UgandaPublic Finance for WASH, 2016. Efforts to increase domestic resource mobilization for WASH are underway in Uganda, potentially unlocking new sources of revenue that could be channeled into improving WASH services.

The Power of Integration to Multiply Development Impact: A Learning BriefUSAID WASHplus Project, 2016. Under the USAID-funded WASHplus project, integration was a strategic approach to attain desired health and development outcomes and combined WASH with nutrition, education, HIV, and neglected tropical diseases programs.

Village Sanitation and Child Health: Effects and External Validity in a Randomized Field Experiment in Rural IndiaJournal of Health Economics, April 2016. This study of a village sanitation intervention was conducted in rural Maharashtra, India and was designed to identify the effect of village sanitation on average child height.

Topic of the Week – Container-Based Sanitation

Container-Based Sanitation: Assessing Costs and Effectiveness of Excreta Management in Cap Haitien, HaitiEnvironment and Urbanization, April 2015. Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible.

User Perceptions of and Willingness to Pay for Household Container-Based Sanitation (CBS) Services: Experience from Cap Haitien, HaitiEnvironment and Urbanization, October 2015. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service program in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service.

Addressing Sanitation Services in Dense Urban Slums: A Container-Based Model.Stanford University, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, 2015. Findings indicate that Container-Based Sanitation can dramatically improve management of waste in otherwise hard-to-serve areas of developing countries while satisfying residents’ desire for safe, convenient, and modern sanitation services.

Webinar: Container-Based Sanitation Solutions. Stanford University, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, April 2016. On March 17, 2016 the Water Health and Development Program hosted a webinar discussing Container-Based Sanitation Solutions.

Studies on container-based sanitation

This bibliography on container-based sanitation will be updated as new reports and studies are published.

2015 Studies

User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, HaitiEnviron Urban. 2015 Oct;27(2):525-540. Authors: Russel K, Tilmans S, et al.

Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service.

The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services.

Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, HaitiEnviron Urban. 2015 Apr;27(1):89-104. Authors: Tilmans S, Russel K, et al.

Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time.

Sanitation and Drainage in Cities – Environment & Urbanization, April 2015

Sanitation and Drainage in CitiesEnvironment & Urbanization, April 2015

Editorial – Is it possible to reach low-income urban dwellers with good-quality sanitation? (Full text) by David Satterthwaite, Diana Mitlin, and Sheridan Bartlett.

Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti. (Full text) by Sebastien Tilmans, Kory Russel, Rachel Sklar, Leah Page, Sasha Kramer, and Jennifer Davis.
Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum,(1) the proportion safely removed via container-based public and household toilets, and the costs associated with these systems. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of planning and policy implications of incorporating CBS into the menu of sanitation options for rapidly growing cities.

Orlando Hernandez – Behavioral Challenges and Potential Solutions to Reach Universal Sanitation Coverage

Behavioral Challenges and Potential Solutions to Reach Universal Sanitation Coverage by Orlando Hernandez, USAID/WASHplus Project and Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, Global Health, Population and Nutrition (GHPN), FHI 360.

The comments below are from Dr. Hernandez’s participation at the World Water Forum 2015 and then posted to the Sanitation and Water for All website.

Behavior change specialists rely on frameworks to dissect a problem and define a strategy to address it. The Water Improvement Framework (WIF), previously named the Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF) developed in connection to USAID WASH projects some 15 years ago, is one such framework. Given its openness and comprehensiveness, the WIF has stood the test of time. Other donors and implementation agencies are thinking along the same lines as there are other similar frameworks developed by WSP, SVN, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, among others.

The WIF is a three-legged stool which brings together: 1) supply, 2) demand, and 3) the enabling environment. It suggests that behavior change (BC) strategies are more than mere promotion, channels and messages. They bring a human dimension to the WASH sector, and when based on the WIF’s the three elements, it guides us to design, implement and evaluate WASH activities.  orlando2

Behavior change frameworks require us to segment our audiences as social groups involved in development are not monolithic. One obvious breakdown in sanitation is a split between urban, peri-urban and rural dwellers. The needs, preferences, sanitation practices and certainly resources of urban, peri-urban and rural populations may be different. With growing urbanization throughout the developing world, coverage in peri-urban areas represent a challenge, especially when we think of tenants living in crowded quarters with no services.

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