Tag Archives: Community-Led Total Sanitation

New Sanitation Market Shaping Blog Series! Read the first of 3 blogs ‘Opportunities for market shaping in West and Central Africa’

New Sanitation Market Shaping Blog Series! Read the first of 3 blogs Opportunities for market shaping in West and Central Africa’

This series of three blogs is based on discussions about market shaping held at a regional sanitation industry consultation in Abuja, Nigeria, convened by UNICEF’s West and Central Africa Regional Office. clts

This first blog outlines how UNICEF and partners are rising to the challenge, recognising the need to expand market-based approaches to sanitation to fulfil the SDG ambition to improve the quality and sustainability of services.

It then reflects on a sanitation market assessment in Ghana, Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire which was validated at the industry consultation where a set of opportunities for strengthening sanitation market systems were developed.

Frontiers 12: Rural Sanitation in Africa: Challenges, Good Practices and Ways Forward

Frontiers 12: Rural Sanitation in Africa: Challenges, Good Practices and Ways Forward In order to achieve universal safely managed sanitation across Africa by 2030 the scale and pace will need to increase drastically. clts

This edition of Frontiers of CLTS draws on the discussions held across two regional Africa events in 2018, highlighting the challenges faced by programme implementers (both government and non-government staff) at different levels in relation to the Ngor Commitments and the achievement of universal access to safely managed sanitation.

A range of initiatives are presented that show promise in addressing these challenges, along with recommended priority actions.

Benefit‐Cost Analysis of Community‐Led Total Sanitation: Incorporating Results from Recent Evaluations

Benefit‐Cost Analysis of Community‐Led Total Sanitation: Incorporating Results from Recent Evaluations. Prepared for the Benefit‐Cost Analysis Reference Case Guidance Project; Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, January 2019.

We analyze the costs and benefits of “Community-Led Total Sanitation” (CLTS), a
sanitation intervention that relies on community-level behavioral change, in a hypothetical rural region in Sub-Saharan Africa with 200 villages and 100,000 people.

The analysis incorporates data on the effectiveness of CLTS from recent randomized control trials (RCTs) and other evaluations. We value reduced mortality benefits by adjusting estimates for the value of statistical life (VSL) from high income countries to reflect incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Reduced morbidity benefits are calculated using a cost of illness (COI) approach based on recent studies quantifying the cost of diarrheal disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Time savings from owning a latrine are valued using estimates for the shadow value of time based on a proportion of the average local wage. Costs include the cost of intervention implementation and management, households’ time costs for participating in the community behavioral change activities, and the cost of constructing latrines.

We estimate the net benefits of this intervention both with and without the inclusion of a positive health externality, which is the additional reduction in diarrhea for an individual when a sufficient proportion of other individuals in the community construct and use latrines and thereby decrease the overall load of waterborne pathogens and fecal bacteria in the environment.

We examine the sensitivity of the results to changes in the effectiveness of the CLTS intervention. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation is used to examine the sensitivity of the results to changes in all of the parameters in the benefit-cost model.

We find that CLTS interventions would pass a benefit-cost test in many situations, but that benefit-cost metrics are not as favorable as many previous studies suggest. The model results are sensitive to baseline conditions, including the income level used to calculate the VSL, the discount rate, and the time spent traveling to defecation sites.

We conclude that many communities will have economic investment opportunities that are more attractive than CLTS, and recommend careful economic analysis of CLTS in specific locations.

The Nakuru Accord: failing better in the WASH sector

The Nakuru Accord: failing better in the WASH sector. CLTS website, December 20, 2018.

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Things can, and do, go wrong in water, sanitation and hygiene.

In July 2018, an event at the Water Engineering Development Centre (WEDC) Conference in Nakuru, Kenya, ‘Blunders, Bloopers and Foul-ups: A WASH Game Show‘ inspired a call for WASH professionals to publicly commit to sharing their failures and learning from one another.

Read the ten principles in the Nakuru Accord asking WASH professional to commit to creating a culture based on transparency and accountability. Be inspired and sign up yourself!

Determining the effectiveness and mode of operation of Community-Led total Sanitation: The DEMO-CLTS study

Determining the effectiveness and mode of operation of Community-Led total Sanitation: The DEMO-CLTS study. EAWAG, December 2018.

The final report of a project in which CLTS was analyzed using the RANAS approach is now out.

In the project funded by BMGF two cross sectional studies in Cambodia and Mozambique (see News June 8, 2018) and one big field experiment with 3120 households in northern Ghana was conducted. The following research question were addressed in this study:

  • How do CLTS participants perceive different activities of the CLTS triggering event?
  • Which factors of the CLTS implementation process are most predictive for CLTS achievements in terms of community’s latrine coverage?
  • Does CLTS successfully provoke latrine construction and stop open defecation (compared to a control group)?
  • What are the mechanisms that lead CLTS to success? In terms of psychological determinants and potential moderating factors?
  • Can CLTS be improved by combining it with evidence-based, behavioral change strategies based on the RANAS-model of behavior change?
  • Which characteristics of communities describe a fertile ground for CLTS to be most effective in stopping open defecation?

Rapid monitoring and evaluation of a community-led total sanitation program using smartphones

Rapid monitoring and evaluation of a community-led total sanitation program using smartphones. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, September 2018.

India accounts for around 50% of the world’s open defecation, and under a World Bank initiative, a rural district was selected to be the first open defecation-free (ODF) district in Punjab. Considering this, the current study aims to evaluate the application and impact of a smartphone-based instant messaging app (IMA) on the process of making Fatehgarh Sahib an ODF district. smartphone

The District Administration involved the Water Supply and Sanitation Department, Non-government Organizations, and volunteers to promote the process of a community-led total sanitation. Proper training was provided to the volunteers to spread awareness about the triggering events, health impacts of open defecation, and monetary benefits of building new individual household latrine (IHHL).

IMA was used as an aid to speed up monitoring and for the evaluation of a sanitation program. All the volunteers were connected to an IMA. This helped in providing a transparent and evidence-based field report on triggering events, follow-up activities, validation of existing IHHL, and monitoring of construction of new IHHL.

IMA is a cost-effective tool as it is already being used by the volunteers and requires no additional cost (on the user or on the project) but requires a training on ethical uses of mobile and data safety.

Engaging men and boys in sanitation and hygiene programmes

Engaging men and boys in sanitation and hygiene programmes. IDS, August 2018.

Discussions of gender in sanitation and hygiene often focus on the roles, positions or impacts on women and girls. Such a focus is critical to improving the gendered outcomes in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), as women and girls bear the greatest burden of WASH work yet are often excluded from planning, delivery and monitoring community WASH activities as a result of having less power, resources, time and status than their male peers.

However, current efforts to improve sanitation and change social norms may not always actively engage men and boys in the most effective way. There is more to learn about how the roles men and boys actually play out in improving use of safe sanitation and improved hygiene practices and – if necessary – how the engagement strategies can be modified to make efforts more successful.

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS shares and builds on the learning from a desk study that explores examples of men’s and boys’ behaviours and gender roles in sanitation and hygiene. Of particular interest is the extent to which the engagement of men and boys in S&H processes is leading to sustainable and transformative change in households and communities and reducing gendered inequality.

The review focuses on men and boys: how to engage them (or not), how to mobilise them as allies in the transformation of S&H outcomes and the problems they contribute to and experience.