In-Line Chlorinators for Water Treatment: Products and Studies

In-Line Chlorinators for Water Treatment: Products and Studies (February 21, 2019) emergencies

This google document was compiled by Tufts University and others and has:

  • Links to chlorine dosers and chlorine makers
  • A bibliography of chlorination studies
  • A chart that summarizes the chlorination studies

Please let us know if you have other products, manufacturers and studies to add to this list and we hope to update this listing on a periodic basis.

Safe Water International – Lessons Learned in the WASH Sector

I Tried to Save the World and Failed is by Larry Siegel of Safe Water International and the book discusses lessons he learned from working on rural drinking water projects in Mexico, Malawi and Cambodia. It is mostly a personal chronicle, but in the last chapter Larry lists the lessons learned. seigel

Download/view the book (pdf, 10.4MB)

Contents

  • Chapters 1 through 5 – The Story of SWI
  • Chapter 6 – Lessons Learned in Sustainability
  • Chapter 7 – Working with Church Groups in Malawi
  • Chapter 8 – More SWI Experiences in Malawi
  • Chapter 9 – If You Build It, Fix it
  • Chapter 10 – National Training Centers
  •  Chapter 11 – Saving the World
  • Chapter 12 –  So What Did I Really Learn

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation – World Bank

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation. World Bank, February 2019.

In the face of urbanization, alternative approaches are needed to deliver adequate and inclusive sanitation services across the full sanitation service chain. Container-based sanitation (CBS) consists of an end-to-end service—that is, one provided along the whole sanitation service chain—that collects excreta hygienically from toilets designed with sealable, removable containers and strives to ensure that the excreta is safely treated, disposed of, and reused. cbs

This report builds on four case studies (SOIL – Haiti, x-runner – Peru, Clean Team – Ghana, Sanergy – Kenya) to assess the role CBS can play in a portfolio of solutions for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS) services.

The authors conclude that CBS approaches should be part of the CWIS portfolio of solutions, especially for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate.

Customer satisfaction with existing services is high and services provided by existing CBS providers are considered safe but have some areas for improvement. While the proportion of total CBS service costs covered by revenues is still small, CBS services are considered to be priced similarly to the main sanitation alternatives in their service areas.

Recommendations include adopting a conducive policy and regulatory environment and exploring ways to ensure that CBS services are sustainably financed. The report also identifies areas for further analysis.

Recent research on sanitation systems, water safety plans, enabling environments

The use of qualitative comparative analysis to identify pathways to successful and failed sanitation systems. Science of The Total Environment, 1 May 2019.
Sanitation failure is not systematically understood. Qualitative comparative analysis elucidated pathways for success and failure. Successful systems needed O&M resources, local engagement, and community buy-in. Failed systems lacked municipal engagement, addressed priorities, and O&M support. Systems must be implemented with a holistic view to best use limited resources.

Capacity building and training approaches for water safety plans: A comprehensive literature review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 8 February 2019.
We propose a WSP training taxonomy and discuss it in relation to the stages of learning (introduction, practice, and reinforcement); describe the importance of customizing training to the target group, local language and circumstances; highlight the relevance of auditing for evaluating change over time; and call for robust methods to monitor WSP capacity development.

The Enabling Environment for Participation in Water and Sanitation: A Conceptual Framework. Water, Feb 2019.
This paper explores elements from the theory and practice of participation, applied to the management of water resources and water and sanitation services. Based on an in-depth literature review, we analyze the forms of participation in water and sanitation, their outcomes, as well as the contextual factors and procedural elements of participatory processes that affect their success.

Health and social impacts of open defecation on women: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 6 February 2019.
The review identified 4 overarching themes; Health Impacts of open defecation, Increased risk of sexual exploitation, Threat to women’s privacy and dignity and Psychosocial stressors linked to open defecation, which clearly present a serious situation of poor sanitation in rural communities of Lower-Middle Income Countries (LMICs). The findings of the review identified that open defecation promotes poor health in women with long-term negative effects on their psychosocial well-being, however it is a poorly researched topic.

Systematic review of menstrual hygiene management requirements, its barriers and strategies for disabled people. PLoS One, Feb 6, 2019.
Little evidence was identified on the requirements of disabled people and their carers in managing their menstruation, and only one intervention, but a range of barriers were identified. This gap in evidence is important, as the consequences of failing to meet menstrual hygiene needs of disabled people includes shame, social isolation, and even sterilisation.

Integrating Typhoid Fever Within the Sustainable Development Goals: Pragmatism or Utopia? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15 February 2019.
This article reviews some of the approaches that may help elevate typhoid to a higher level of awareness in public health programs and policy and to ensure that investments in major public health preventive measures are made part of the universal health coverage agenda.

The impact of improved water, sanitation and hygiene on oral rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in Zimbabwean infants: sub-study of a cluster-randomized trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 16 February 2019.
Improvements in household WASH led to modest but significant increases in seroconversion to oral rotavirus vaccine in rural Zimbabwean infants.

Effect of a sanitation intervention on soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and concentration in household soil: A cluster-randomized controlled trial and risk factor analysis. PLoS NTDs, 11 February 2019.
The sanitation intervention did not reduce STH contamination in household soil, suggesting households with access to improved sanitation may still be exposed to STH in the household environment. Risk factors for the presence of STH soil contamination included sharing toilets, an uncovered latrine pit, latrines <2 years old, owning dogs, shade on the sampling location, and high soil moisture content.

Water Quality – Water Currents, February 12, 2019

Water Quality – Water Currents, February 12, 2019

Globally, at least 2 billion people use a drinking water source contaminated with feces. More than 1,300 children under 5 years of age die every day from diarrhea linked to unsafe water and poor sanitation. The U.S. Government Global Water Strategy and the USAID Water and Development Plan in support of the strategy include a focus on increasing sustainable access to safe drinking water, recognizing it as crucial to lifting people out of poverty and especially important for unlocking educational and economic opportunities for women and girls. waterquality

This issue of Water Currents looks at water quality—specifically drinking water—and includes research and technical resources on water safety plans, water quality monitoring, and chemical and microbial hazards in water. A special thanks goes out to the staff of Sattva for contributing to this issue. Sattva is a key member of the SAFEBillion initiative, a collaborative effort to create solutions for access to clean drinking water, free from arsenic and fluoride.

Standards and Guidance
Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (GDWQ)World Health Organization (WHO), 2017. This is the fourth edition of the Guidelines and it builds on over 50 years of guidance by WHO on drinking-water quality. The report also includes fact sheets on a broad range of chemicals that can affect water quality.

Developing Drinking-Water Quality Regulations and StandardsWHO, 2018. This document provides practical guidance to support the development or revision of customized national or subnational drinking water quality regulations and standards.

Safely Managed Drinking Water: Thematic Report on Drinking Water 2017WHOUNICEF, 2017. WHO/UNICEF’s Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) introduced “safely managed drinking water services” as a new standard of drinking water quality in its 2017 report, which examines this new designation in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Read the complete issue.

 

Global Waters – Turning on the Water: USAID Collaborates with Local Partners to Restore Water Access to Northeast Syria

Turning on the Water: USAID Collaborates with Local Partners to Restore Water Access to Northeast Syria. Global Waters, February 8, 2019.

“It really is an exciting thing to turn back on the water,” says USAID’s Development Advisor David Isaak. “It gives communities some sense of normalcy, that things are coming back to life.”

Before the outbreak of war in 2011, millions of Syrians had their water consistently delivered through a vast network of pipes and thousands of large-scale pumps. Nearly all Syrians enjoyed access to potable water, and massive man-made canals irrigated the arid northeastern countryside, which facilitated a productive agricultural economy.

syria

USAID’s Syria Essential Services (SES II) project helped rehabilitate this well in southwest Syria and installed solar panels to power the pumps. Photo credit: USAID/SES II

The conflict took a heavy toll on the country’s infrastructure, often deliberately as a tool of war: aerial campaigns and/or improvised explosive devices targeted miles of water networks and destroyed thousands of water pumps. Other water pumps were simply abandoned after the massive civilian exodus.

Read the complete article in USAID’s Global Waters Stories.

New call for researchers (WSUP – Urban Sanitation Research Initiative)

Evaluation of user experience outcomes of Clean Team service use

Focus country: Ghana

This research project is commissioned under the Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, a 2017−2020 research programme core-funded by UK aid from the British people and managed by Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP). This research project will deliver an evaluation of the user experience outcomes of being a customer of Clean Team Ghana.

Clean Team Ghana is a social enterprise providing container-based toilets for a monthly fee covering toilet rental and the container replacement service. Clean Team Ghana currently operates in the city of Kumasi. It has about 1500 customers, and is recruiting new customers at a rate of about 300 per month. This research will aim to generate evidence that is: a) of wide value in Ghana and internationally for understanding the user experience impacts of container-based sanitation service models of this type, and b) of specific value to Clean Team Ghana in further improving their business model.

The research should focus on user experience including i) satisfaction with aspects including for example smell and container replacement service, and ii) subjective wellbeing across a range of dimensions including dignity and security. We anticipate a longitudinal design, with customers interviewed just before service start, soon after service start, and 6 months after service start.

Maximum budget under this Call: GBP 80,000 inclusive of VAT
Bids due: Before UK 1700 hours on 4th March 2019.

For more information visit: https://www.wsup.com/research/open-calls/