Toilet Board Coalition – The Sanitation Economy in Agriculture

The Sanitation Economy in Agriculture: Sector Level Opportunities, New Toolbox, and Case Study. Toilet Board Coalition, November 2018.  tbc.jpg

Sanitation systems have a material impact on agriculture – on the soil, on the water, and
on the people who work and live on plantations. Improving sanitation in agricultural businesses will:

  • Improve the health of workers and their families, increasing well-being and
    productivity
  • Eliminate open defecation and environmental contamination of soil and
    ground-water
  • Reduce climate change impact through reduction of methane emissions

Desalination in humanitarian situations

Dear Colleagues:

We were asked to compile a bibliography on this topic and have set up a shared google document.

The search results were kind of disappointing so please let us know if you have other studies or resources to add and we will try to keep an ongoing bibliography of the latest studies on desalination.

We also received requests to prepare bibliographies on the role water utilities in humanitarian situations so that will be the topic of the next biweekly update. Just let us know of any other topics that you are interested in.

HUMANITARIAN SITUATIONS

A Road Map for Small-Scale Desalination: An overview of existing and emerging technology solutions for cost-efficient and low-energy desalination in South & Southeast Asia. OXFAM, May 2018. This report identifies the existing and emerging desalination technologies available (globally) and prioritizes their appropriateness, effectiveness and potential scalability in terms of their cost, efficacy of treatment, energy requirements and sustainability.

Marine Current Energy Converters to Power a Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant. Energies, October 2018. The topic of this paper is utilization of marine current energy converters (hydro-kinetic energy) for powering desalination plants.

Applicability of Desalination Systems to Drought Relief Applications. US Navy, November 2018. Congress tasked the Navy to write a report on desalinization technology’s application for defense and national security purposes to provide drought relief to areas impacted by sharp declines in water resources. The general answer is: desalination is absolutely applicable to drought relief applications.

Effectiveness of Membrane Filtration to Improve Drinking Water: A Quasi-Experimental Study from Rural Southern India. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, November 2016. For this report, we evaluated a source-based, low-pressure membrane filtration system which operates without electricity or conditioning materials such as glycerol or ethanol and has been used in emergency and disaster relief situations such as after the tsunami of 2004 in Sri Lanka, India, and Indonesia, and other humanitarian installations in 16 other low-income countries.

OTHER REPORTS/STUDIES

Safe drinking-water from desalination: Guidance on risk assessment and risk management procedures to ensure the safety of desalinated drinking-water. WHO, March 2011. This WHO guidance document is health-focused and it builds on the publication “Desalination technology: health and environmental impacts. ”

Tapping the Oceans: Seawater Desalination and the Political Ecology of Water. Edward Elgar Publishing, November 2018. Through a series of cutting-edge case studies and multi-subject approaches, this book explores the political and ecological debates facing water desalination on a broad geographical scale.

Water desalination in the Gaza Strip: Al Salam RO brackish water desalination plant case study. WEDC Conference, 2017. This paper presents the details of the implementation of a medium scale brackish water desalination plant constructed in eastern Rafah – Gaza by Oxfam and its partner the Coastal Municipalities Water Utility.

Innovative approaches for the construction of Gaza’s largest seawater desalination plant. Waterlines, July 2017. Seawater desalination is an energy-intensive process and, given the limited availability of electricity within Gaza, UNICEF has focused on identifying innovative means of generating and conserving energy to tackle the energy–water nexus by incorporating renewable energy and energy recovery to maximize the plant’s viability.

NEWS

Oman Humanitarian Desalination Challenge – The Challenge is a joint initiative led by MEDRC Water Research and The Research Council Oman with funding provided by The Sultan Qaboos Higher Center for Culture and Science. The challenge seeks to create a hand-held, stand-alone, low-cost, desalination device for short-term use and rapid deployment following a humanitarian crisis.

Water Purification Breakthrough Uses Sunlight and Hydrogels. UT News, April 2018. The ability to create clean, safe drinking water using only natural levels of sunlight and inexpensive gel technology could be at hand, thanks to an innovation in water purification.

Desalination: Water for an Increasingly Thirsty World. Europe Now, December 10, 2018. Desalination technology is neither new nor perfect. Several technologies currently are used to desalinate water, and a combination of different challenges and application needs creates a situation where no single technology is a perfect fit for all situations.

ORGANIZATIONS

International Desalination Association (IDA) – IDA is the world’s leading resource for information and professional development for the global desalination industry – and the only global association focused exclusively on desalination and water reuse technologies.

USAID OFDA – Social Science in Epidemics: Cholera lessons learned

Social Science in Epidemics: Cholera lessons learned. Social Science in Humanitarian Action, December 2018.

This report is the first installment of the ‘Social Science in Epidemics’ series, commissioned by the USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Direct Assistance (OFDA). In this series, past outbreaks are reviewed in order to identify social science ‘entry points’ for emergency interventions and preparedness activities.

The aim is to determine tangible ways to address the social, political and economic dynamics of epidemics and to ensure that interventions build on the social and cultural resources of the communities they aim to support.

This report focuses on the lessons learned primarily from countries affected by cholera outbreaks in the past four decades, in what is called the 7th Cholera pandemic.

The most important case studies considered are the epidemics in Peru (1991), Haiti (2010), South Sudan (2016), India (endemic outbreaks), Mozambique (2014 and 2017) and Zimbabwe (2008 and ongoing outbreak), yet other countries’ experiences are incorporated.

Lessons are also integrated from literature around cultural responses to Oral Rehydration Therapy in the context of acute diarrheal disease.

Cities of tomorrow: improving sanitation and hygiene services in Babati, Tanzania

Cities of tomorrow: improving sanitation and hygiene services in Babati, Tanzania. WASHmatters, December 19, 2018.

One of the initial outcomes from the research is an agreement by town planners to include sanitation and hygiene in future Babati city planning. wateraid

In the town’s ‘spatial master plan’ the chapter on sanitation now reflects some of the research findings, which will help to ensure that the appropriate sanitation services are considered when it comes to planning the growing town.

The next step for the town is to put together an action plan for sanitation and hygiene services based on the agreed scenarios, and then mobilise resources to implement the plan. We will continue to support Babati as they move forward with their action plan.

Whilst urbanisation can present a lot of opportunities, it also throws up many challenges. This research demonstrates the importance of embedding sanitation and hygiene systems in town planning, and will hopefully be used to encourage and influence other growing towns in Tanzania.

It also illustrates that effective planning and stakeholder collaboration can help to ensure Tanzania’s cities of tomorrow have sustainable access to sanitation and hygiene.

Training Program on Implementing and Operationalizing Faecal Sludge Management

In the next five years, it is expected that more than 500 faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) have to be designed, built and operated in India. However, there is a significant gap in understanding of the faecal sludge management opportunities and operations amongst practitioners such as contractors and operators.

To address this gap, the Centre for Advanced Sanitation Solutions (CASS) in partnership with The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, BORDA and the CDD Society is organising a training course + exposure visit on faecal sludge management from 5-8 February 2019 in Bengaluru, India.

For more information go to: www.trainings.cddindia.org

 

The Nakuru Accord: failing better in the WASH sector

The Nakuru Accord: failing better in the WASH sector. CLTS website, December 20, 2018.

clts

Things can, and do, go wrong in water, sanitation and hygiene.

In July 2018, an event at the Water Engineering Development Centre (WEDC) Conference in Nakuru, Kenya, ‘Blunders, Bloopers and Foul-ups: A WASH Game Show‘ inspired a call for WASH professionals to publicly commit to sharing their failures and learning from one another.

Read the ten principles in the Nakuru Accord asking WASH professional to commit to creating a culture based on transparency and accountability. Be inspired and sign up yourself!

The social dynamics around shared sanitation in an informal settlement of Lusaka, Zambia

The social dynamics around shared sanitation in an informal settlement of Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, December 2018.

This study explored the social dynamics affecting collective management of shared sanitation in Bauleni compound of Lusaka, Zambia. journal.jpeg

Pit latrines were predominantly shared by landlords and tenants on residential plots. However, unwelcome non-plot members also used the latrines due to a lack of physical boundaries. Not all plot members equally fulfilled their cleaning responsibilities, thereby compromising the intended benefits for those conforming.

Landlords typically decided on latrine improvements independent of tenants. Latrines were not systematically monitored or maintained, but punishment for non-conformers was proportionate to the level of infraction. There was no system in place for conflict resolution, nor local organizations to regulate the management of sanitation.

Lastly, there were few enterprises associated with peri-urban sanitation. Social capital was moderately high, and tenants were willing to invest money into improving sanitation. The social dynamics illuminated here provide an important basis for the development of a behavioural intervention targeted towards improving urban sanitation.