July 2019 WASH Benefits studies | USAID funding for desalination research

EVENTS

USAID/MEDRC Humanitarian Desalination Challenge: Call for Proposals – In partnership with USAID, MEDRC Water Research is launching an international research call for proposals to boost innovation in small scale desalination technologies. The Humanitarian Desalination Challenge Research Call will support pathway research, aimed at the delivery of an innovative family sized desalination unit.

WASH BENEFITS STUDIES ntds

Achieving optimal technology and behavioral uptake of single and combined interventions of water, sanitation hygiene and nutrition, in an efficacy trial (WASH benefits) in rural Bangladesh. Trials, July 6. Rigorous implementation of interventions deployed at large scale in the context of an efficacy trial achieved high levels of technology and behavioral uptake in individual and combined WASH and nutrition intervention households. Further work should assess how to achieve similar uptake levels under programmatic conditions.

WASH Benefits Bangladesh trial: system for monitoring coverage and quality in an efficacy trial. Trials, July 6. Behavioral objectives were drinking treated, safely stored water, safe feces disposal, handwashing with soap at key times, and age-appropriate nutrition behaviors. We administered monthly surveys and spot-checks to households from randomly selected clusters for 6 months early in the trial. If any fidelity measures fell below set benchmarks, a rapid response mechanism was triggered.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

WASH practices and its association with nutritional status of adolescent girls in poverty pockets of eastern India. BMC Women’s Health, July 5. Poor WASH practices like water facility outside the household premise, unimproved sanitation facility, non use of soap after defecation had significant association with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls.

Economic cost analysis of low-cost sanitation technology options in informal settlement areas (case study: Soweto, Johannesburg). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 3 July 2019. The study revealed that simplified sewerage is the cheapest option for Soweto informal settlement, even when the costs of pumping and treatment are included. Gravity simplified sewerage with treatment is cheaper than the UDDT system and VIP latrine at all population densities above 158 and 172 persons/ha, respectively. The total annual cost per household of simplified sewerage and treatment was US$142 compared to US$156 and US$144 for UDDT and VIP latrine respectively.

Microbial Source Tracking Using 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing Identifies Evidence of Widespread Contamination from Young Children’s Feces in an Urban Slum of Nairobi, Kenya. Environ. Sci. Technol., June 21, 2019. Among environmental samples, young children’s feces were almost always identified as the dominant source of human fecal contamination inside households (hands, surfaces) whereas older children/adult feces were often identified as the dominant source outside households (standing water, streams, soil). Markers for young children’s feces were also detected in standing water and streams, and markers for both fecal sources were equally likely to be dominant in open ditches. These results establish motivation for sanitation interventions that directly address child feces management.

BLOG POSTS/NEWS ARTICLES

Will Sarni: “Cyber security is critical for water utilities.” Smart Water Magazine, July 2019. Digital technologies are providing vastly improved connectivity from source to use.

Gender and water collection responsibilities – A snapshot of Latin America. Water Blog, June 26. In those households where water needs to be collected, 57 % of those collecting water in El Salvador, 55.6 % of those fetching water in Panama, and 57.9 % of those fetching water in Paraguay are women. In Mexico, the burden of fetching water seems more evenly divided: with 50.8 % of women burdened with water-collection responsibilities.

As a major Indian city runs out of water, 9 million people pray for rain. Washington Post, June 28. A severe water shortage is stalking Chennai, whose metropolitan area is home to 9 million people. The city’s reservoirs and lakes are parched and its wells have run dry after two years of scanty rains here.

July 16, 2019 – Webinar on Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies Toolkit

July 16, 2019 Webinar on Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies Toolkit

  • Organized by Columbia University , International Rescue Committee (IRC)
  • 12:00pm — 1:00pm mhday

Please join us for a webinar on the Menstrual Hygiene Management in Emergencies Toolkit. Feel free to invite any colleagues who may be interested in this event!

Discussion topics include:

  • Conducting a rapid MHM assessment
  • Sector responsibilities on MHM (WASH, Protection, Shelter, Health, Education, Camp Management)
  • Monitoring & evaluating MHM activities
  • Key findings from ongoing implementation and research

Additional info and registration

Three things we have learned by creating shit-flow diagrams – WaterAid

Three things we have learned by creating shit-flow diagrams. WaterAid Blog, June 2019.

How do you get a full picture of how a city deals (or doesn’t deal) with its waste? Rémi Kaupp, urban sanitation specialist, swears by shit flow diagrams…

Think about your city. Hundreds, thousands, maybe millions of people, going to the toilet, every day. Do you know where it all goes after the toilet? And, crucially, do you know how much of it is treated? wateraid

In many cities where WaterAid works, the answer is: not really. Authorities might have a rough estimate of the proportion of people who have a toilet, and also know where treatment plants are, if there are any – but that’s not the whole picture.

Introducing: the shit flow diagram

To get the full view, my colleagues have been using one of my favourite tools in sanitation: the shit-flow diagram (also called SFD, or ‘excreta-flow diagram’, if you prefer). An SFD looks like the festive picture below. For a given city, green arrows represent the proportions of excreta that are ‘safely managed’ along the whole sanitation chain: from the toilet, through a pit or septic tank, via sewers or sludge tankers, to treatment stations and eventual disposal or reuse.

Read the complete article.

Recent WASH research on handwashing, CLTS, Ascaris infections and more

In addition to the studies below, recent updates to Globalwaters.org include the blog posts, Webinar Discusses the Use of Monitoring Data in WASH Sector Decision-MakingWater Security in an Uncertain Future: Enhancing Water Resources Management and Planning by Reducing Climate- and Weather-Related Risks and news articles from the African Water Association, Kenya and Nigeria in USAID in the News.

JOURNAL ARTICLES frist

Effects of single and integrated water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions on child soil-transmitted helminth and Giardia infections: A cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Kenya. PLoS Medicine, June 26. Integration of improved water quality, sanitation, and handwashing could contribute to sustainable control strategies for Ascaris infections, particularly in similar settings with recent or ongoing deworming programs. Combining nutrition with WASH did not provide further benefits, and water treatment alone was similarly effective to integrated WSH. Our findings provide new evidence that drinking water should be given increased attention as a transmission pathway for Ascaris.

Toward Complementary Food Hygiene Practices among Child Caregivers in Rural Malawi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, June 24. Analysis of variance analyses revealed that literacy level, ownership of animals, and presence of handwashing facility and dish racks were contextual factors predicting storage of utensils on an elevated place and handwashing frequencies. Psychosocial factors, such as time spent to wash utensils with soap, distance to the handwashing facility, and cost for soap, had an influence on washing utensils and handwashing practices. Risk perceptions on storage of utensils and handwashing practices should be increased with motivational exercises such as paint games. Caregivers’ technical know-how of local dish rack and tippy tap construction is essential.

Long-term impact of a community-led sanitation campaign in India, 2005‒2016. WHO Bulletin, online first. In 2016, intervention households continued to have higher rates of ever owning a latrine (26.3 percentage points; 95% CI: 20.9 to 31.8). However, latrine functionality and open defecation were no longer different across groups, due to both acquisition of latrines by control households and abandonment and deterioration of latrines in intervention homes.

Examining time‐dependent effects of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions using an agent‐based model. Trop Med Int Health, June 14. We simulated three intervention strategies, implemented separately in the experiments. The clean drinking water intervention, sanitation intervention, and hand washing intervention had similar success rates in the long‐term. The handwashing intervention had the largest immediate effect. This highlights that proper short‐ and long‐term intervention strategies need to be considered for disease control and the effective management of limited resources.

Comprehensive assessment of handwashing and faecal contamination among elementary school children in an urban slum of Indonesia. Trop Med Int Health, June 13. Proper handwashing technique and HWWS at appropriate times can reduce fecal contamination. Moreover, it is important that both grade‐based and gender‐based handwashing education be considered in elementary school education.

Microbial study of household hygiene conditions and associated Listeria monocytogenes infection risks for Peruvian women. Trop Med Int Health, May 2019. In addition to gaining insights on how human behaviours affect exposure and infection risk, this model addressed uncertainties regarding the influence of household surface contamination levels. Understanding the influence of surface contamination in preventing pathogen transmission in households could help to develop intervention strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes infection and associated health risks.

RECENT WATERAID BLOGS/REPORTS

Three things we have learned by creating shit-flow diagrams. WaterAid, June 24. How do you get a full picture of how a city deals (or doesn’t deal) with its waste? Rémi Kaupp, urban sanitation specialist, swears by shit flow diagrams…

Reducing inequalities through universal access to water, sanitation and hygiene. WaterAid, July 2019. Prioritize reaching the furthest behind first by: 1. Increasing collection and dissemination of disaggregated data (by income, ethnicity, location, gender, disability, etc.), to better understand who lacks access and why.

An Ebola Update – Emergency WASH Biweekly Update, June 28, 2019

financeNews Articles/Blog Posts

Ebola in the DRC: everything you need to know. The Guardian, June 25, 2019. Key facts about the second largest outbreak of the disease in history.

“Ebola will be eradicated…it doesn’t mean it won’t come back.” BBC Podcast, June 28. Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebryesus – Chief Executive of the World Health Organisation – has recently got back from a fact-finding visit to the DRC and neighboring Uganda.

Uganda: Ebola Now Under Control, Says Govt. AllAfrica, June 28, 2019. Government has said they are on top of the game in preventing the further spread of the Ebola Viral Disease (EVD), which has ravaged neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for a year now.

USAID chief: Key to containing Ebola is transparency. Devex, June 19. Research from John Hopkins University found that a lack of understanding of the disease and a lack of trust in institutions to put in place a control strategy could be a reason the virus has spread more rapidly in recent months than it did at the beginning of the outbreak.

STUDIES/REPORTS

Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo, Disease outbreak news: Update, 27 June 2019. WHO. In the 21 days, between 5 to 25 June 2019, 67 health areas within 19 health zones reported new cases, representing 10% of the 664 health areas within North Kivu and Ituri provinces (Figure 2). During this period, a total of 252 confirmed cases were reported.

Effectiveness of Dettol Antiseptic Liquid for Inactivation of Ebola Virus in Suspension. Nature, Scientific Reports, April 2019. The rapid and substantial inactivation of EBOV/Mak by DAL suggests that use of this hygiene product could help prevent the spread of Ebola virus disease during outbreaks.

Continue reading

USAID Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017

Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017. USAID, June 2019.

In the “Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017,” USAID charts its progress toward achieving the goal of providing 15 million people with sustainable access to safe drinking water services and 8 million people with sustainable sanitation by 2022. usaid

In FY 2017, USAID provided $449.6 million to support water, sanitation, and hygiene activities in 41 countries. As a result, 3.6 million people gained access to improved water while 3.2 million gained access to improved sanitation.

The annual report also explores USAID’s support for partner countries on their journeys to self-reliance through many voices:

  • A community mobilizer in India marketing safe water kiosks to her neighbors
  • A homeowner in Indonesia who can now afford to build a septic tank system with funds from a community savings account
  • A mother in the Dominican Republic who has traded a wetland for the open sewer that used to run through her backyard
  • A regional water bureau manager in Ethiopia who can remotely monitor water point functionality through a data visualization platform

UNICEF guides on menstrual hygiene management |WASH Benefits update

REPORTS

Guide to menstrual hygiene materials. UNICEF, May 2019. The guide is meant to familiarize UNICEF staff members with the key characteristics and requirements for the most common menstrual hygiene materials: menstrual cloths, reusable pads, disposable pads, menstrual cups and tampons. For each menstrual material, the environmental, health, and financial aspects are highlighted in individual tables – along with considerations of availability, user experience, and standards and regulations. Technical specifications are provided for each material. The guide concludes with a summary table of these key attributes. mhm

Guidance on Menstrual Health and Hygiene. UNICEF, March 2019. This guidance was developed for UNICEF WASH, Education, Health, and Gender specialists or focal points in country offices who are working with their partners to develop programs related to menstrual health and hygiene (MHH).

Composting and Dry Desiccating Toilets (Latrines). Global Water Pathogen Project, June 2019. Scientists involved with the Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP) have compiled the most up to date information on Composting and Dry Desiccating Toilets (Latrines) for the purpose of providing a key reference point in the development of quantitative guidance for sanitation practices worldwide.

Mainstreaming Energy Efficiency Investments in Urban Water and Wastewater Utilities. World Bank, June 2019. This guidance note presents an overview of the benefits of improving energy efficiency in urban water and wastewater utilities.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

The WASH Benefits and SHINE Trials. Interpretation of Findings on Linear Growth and Diarrhoea and Implications for Policy: Perspective of the Investigative Teams (P10-136-19). Current Developments in Nutrition, June 2019. We recently completed 3 efficacy trials (Bangladesh, Kenya, Zimbabwe) testing the independent and combined effects of improved complementary feeding (CF) and intensive household water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on child diarrhea and length-for-age-Z-score (LAZ) at 18 to 24 mo. Intervention uptake was high. In all three trials: CF increased LAZ but WASH had no effect on LAZ. WASH reduced diarrhea in Bangladesh but not in Kenya or Zimbabwe. We present a synthesis of trial findings and their implications.

Design of a parallel cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia: Andilaye study protocol. BMC Public Health, June 21, 2019. The purpose of this protocol is to detail the rationale and design of a cluster-randomized trial evaluating the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia.

BLOG POSTS

Solutions for Resilience and Peace Building Across the World. Engineering for Change, May 30, 2019. About 90 percent of USAID’s water priority countries are conflict-affected or fragile. In 2018, over 60 million people around the world were affected by more than 280 natural disasters. Effective water resource management is complex even in times of peace and prosperity. In a time of crisis, whether war or natural disaster or drought, it means the difference between building resilience or compounding tragedy.

Have you heard of impact bonds? Sustainable Cities, June 2019.  Impact bonds are a form of public-private partnership that rewards investors for successfully delivering impact. Investors are rewarded if providers meet agreed-upon outcomes but lose their investment if the providers underachieve or fail.