Category Archives: Uncategorized

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019.

This issue of Water Currents highlights recent studies and resources on fecal sludge management, container-based sanitation, shared sanitation, and other topics. As noted in USAID’s Water and Development Plan included in the U.S. Global Water Strategy, separating individuals and communities from human waste, properly treating fecal waste, and promoting key behaviors that lessen the risk of illness are critical sanitation and hygiene interventions that reduce diarrheal disease, child mortality, malnutrition, neglected tropical diseases, and other waterborne illnesses, such as cholera. sanergy.png

The first six studies are from the Creating Demand for Peri-Urban Sanitation (SanDem) project, which aims to better understand how to improve the quality of peri-urban sanitation using demand-side/behavior change approaches in Lusaka, Zambia.

We would like to thank staff from Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) for contributing content to this issue. SHARE generates evidence to improve policy and practice worldwide to achieve universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene.

Read the complete issue.

WASH & Neglected Tropical Diseases: Water Currents, May 7, 2019

The U.S. Government Global Water Strategy identifies poor hygiene and the lack of adequate water and sanitation as a leading cause of disease and death worldwide and a contributor to the spread of many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).

The World Health Organization (WHO) WASH and NTD global strategy (2015–2020) emphasizes the urgent need to focus efforts on the provision of safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to eliminate NTDs. Despite the urgency, according to the WHO strategy, WASH and NTDs have received little attention. ntds

This issue features new NTD toolkits from the WHO and the International Coalition for Trachoma Control (ICTC), as well as news from USAID’s NTD Program, studies and reports with overviews on WASH and NTDs, and recently published updates on schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths, and trachoma. It also includes links to some earlier but key WASH and NTD reports.

We would like to thank staff from Global Water 2020 for reviewing and providing content for this issue, as well as the International Coalition for Trachoma ControlSchistosomiasis Control Initiative, and SightSavers for providing content.


News
Taking Action to End NTDsUSAID Neglected Tropical Diseases Program, February 2019. Last year USAID announced a combined $500 million investment for two new five-year flagship awards that will lead the Agency’s next generation of NTD programming.

Toolkits
WASH and Health Working Together: A ‘How-To’ Guide for Neglected Tropical Disease ProgrammesWHO; NNN, January 2019. This toolkit provides step-by-step guidance to NTD program managers and partners on how to engage and work collaboratively with the WASH community to improve delivery of WASH services to underserved populations affected by NTDs. It includes a series of tools to help build multisectoral partnerships and design, implement, and evaluate interventions. The WHO also hosted a recent webinar on the toolkit and Facebook Live Q&A.

Transition Planning for Facial Cleanliness and Environmental Improvement. ICTC, April 2019. This toolkit for transition planning is one of three planning documents ICTC recommends for program managers and implementing partners to support transition from elimination efforts to routine public services.

NTD General
Fact Sheets on the Five Main WASH-Related NTDsWHO, March and April 2019. TrachomaSchistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections (roundworm, whipworm, hookworm). These updated online resources provide a snapshot of each disease with information on prevalence, transmission, and strategies for control.

Read the complete issue.

USAID Releases New Standard Indicators for Water and Sanitation

USAID Releases New Standard Indicators for Water and Sanitation. Globalwaters.org, May 2019.

USAID uses standard indicators to aggregate the Agency’s work across all programs and report on outcomes. Previously, the focus was on reporting results for first time access to or improved service quality of water and sanitation services.

During the last strategy period (2013–2018), 22.4 million people gained access to new or improved water services and 15.6 million people gained access to new or improved sanitation services. indicators.png

While the focus on delivering water and sanitation services remains core to our work, the Plan adds an emphasis on sustainability through the inclusion of DR1 and DR4.

To better capture and report on achievements under these development results, USAID has developed three new standard indicators:

  • Number of water and sanitation sector institutions strengthened to manage water resources or improve water supply and sanitation services as a result of U.S. Government (USG) assistance
  • Value of new funding mobilized to the water and sanitation sectors as a result of USG assistance
  • Number of people benefiting from the adoption and implementation of measures to improve water resources management as a result of USG assistance

Read the complete article.

iDE shares its secrets to achieving impact and scale

The market-based organization launches an online knowledge hub that dives deep into 10 years of learnings and insights in building markets for WASH.

 

After building one of the most successful market-based sanitation programs in the world, iDE is sharing its secrets to achieving impact and scale.

iDE, a Denver-based international nonprofit working to end poverty, launches a knowledge hub for market-based development professionals and enthusiasts, publishing over 10 years of learnings and insights from building markets for WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) in developing countries around the world.

Explore the site: washmarkets.ideglobal.org

“Critical for our own continued learning, even though it was not required by any donor, we decided we needed to write down, analyze, and reflect on the body of experience and evidence from our sanitation marketing program,” said Yi Wei, Director of Global WASH. “However, instead of the dreaded 100-page report, we decided to conduct this reflection and learning in a modern, dynamic way where others can be invited in to poke around and ask questions.”

iDE’s rigorous evidence and distilled insights highlight five key findings:

  • Markets can be effectively leveraged to reach the poorest and most vulnerable populations.
  • Product and business model design must start with a deep understanding of customer needs, and recognition that customers and their needs may change as the market evolves.
  • Iterative, data-driven programming is required to keep pace with rapid market changes.
  • Business and consumer financing are critical to deliver inclusive results, but nascent and dysfunctional markets mean that implementers must be creative in designing workable solutions.
  • Sanitation marketing and behavior change toward consistent latrine use can positively impact health.

The site primarily focuses on learnings from iDE’s sanitation program in Cambodia, which has facilitated the sale of 309,692 latrines (as of January 2019), improving coverage from 29% in 2012 to 69% today. Learnings from iDE’s other sanitation programs in Ghana, Ethiopia, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Vietnam will be added later this year and next.

iDE’s site shows that market-based development requires constant innovation and iteration, which are not without hard-won lessons. Flexible, supportive partnerships are also critical to create the space to experiment, innovate, and learn adaptively. iDE opens its doors to share this history and experience in a spirit of collaboration and learning.

“The goal of the microsite is not to stand as a static repository of knowledge, but rather, to serve as a conversation starter. We hope visitors will be inspired to unpack assumptions, reconcile evidence with theory, and share with us their reactions,” said Wei.

Water Currents: Learning from Failures

Water Currents: Learning from Failures, April 23, 2019

Many international development projects have unintended negative consequences. Without post-implementation evaluation, these unintended consequences can go unnoticed by almost everyone—except the people who were supposed to benefit from the project. Even with evaluations, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) professionals are often reluctant to share poor findings due to perceived repercussions. However, allowing others to learn from mistakes could help to prevent the same problems from happening again. learning

Several organizations, including USAID, @FSM_Fail, Improve International, the World Bank, and others, are pushing to change this attitude toward failure. They see learning from failure as a way to improve the success and sustainability of programs and projects in the WASH sector.

This issue features articles that talk about failure, how to identify and avoid future failures, and the role of finance in mitigating failure. It includes case studies from Tanzania, Nigeria, and Nepal, as well as studies that discuss learning from failure in rural water supply and urban sanitation systems. Also highlighted are studies that looked at both success and failure, including the first four (in a series of six) ex-post evaluations that discuss factors that affect the long-term sustainability of USAID WASH projects. A special thanks goes out to @FSM_Fail and Improve International for contributing content and reviewing this issue.


Learning from Failures – Overviews
Blunders, Bloopers and Foul-Ups: Sharing Failures in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene ProgramsEngineering for Change, August 2018. Until a culture of sharing and learning from failures is more widely instilled in the WASH sector, practitioners will continue to make the same mistakes, possibly at the expense of those whom the programs are designed to benefit. This article describes how a “failure event” raised awareness of this topic.

The Nakuru Accord: Failing Better in the WASH SectorUniversity of Leeds WASH Blog, January 2019. In July 2018, an event at the Water Engineering Development Centre Conference in Nakuru, Kenya, “Blunders, Bloopers and Foul-ups: A WASH Game Show,” (mentioned above) inspired a call for WASH professionals to publicly commit to sharing their failures and learning from one another. The Nakuru Accord is that commitment.

Opinion: Want to Improve Development Outcomes? Anticipate the Failures. Here’s HowDevex, February 2018. This article discusses “premortems,” a strategy in which a team imagines that a project has failed, and then works backward to determine what can lead to failure in order to address the issues before projects start.

Read the complete issue.

Container-based sanitation: one way to reach the last mile for sanitation services

Container-based sanitation: one way to reach the last mile for sanitation services. World Bank Water Blog, February 2019.

Container-based sanitation (CBS) is one of the ways that such services can be provided. CBS consists of an end-to-end service – i.e. one provided along the entire sanitation service chain – which collects excreta hygienically from toilets designed with sealable, removable containers and which strives to ensure that the excreta is safely treated and disposed of or reused. cbs_cover.png

For cities, this has major implications as it can help them shift their focus from exclusively building sanitation infrastructure to that of service delivery.

Where is CBS appropriate?
Based on a review of four CBS service providers, the World Bank has identified the following emerging lessons:

  • CBS approaches should be considered as part of a menu of CWIS options, particularly in hard-to-reach areas of cities.
  • The introduction of CBS services could especially be considered for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate.
  • Adopting a conducive policy and regulatory environment could be an important first step for governments looking to foster CBS services in areas where they could be suitable.
  • Recognizing the fact that CBS service providers will likely not be covering their full costs in the short- to medium-term, and that most urban sanitation services are subsidized, public authorities and/or water supply and sanitation service providers could explore ways to ensure that CBS services are sustainably financed.

Integrating Green and Gray: Creating Next Generation Infrastructure – World Bank

Integrating Green and Gray: Creating Next Generation Infrastructure. World Bank, April 2019. worldbank

A new generation of infrastructure projects that harness the power of nature can help achieve development goals, including water security and climate resilience.

In this report from the World Bank and World Resources Institute, both organizations are calling for green infrastructure, such as mangroves and wetlands, to play a bigger role in traditional infrastructure planning.

Integrating nature into mainstream infrastructure systems can produce lower cost and more resilient services. This report guides developing country service providers and their partners on how to seize this opportunity. It reviews approaches and examples of how to integrate green infrastructure into mainstream project appraisal processes and investments.