Category Archives: Uncategorized

3 ways India can tackle its human-waste problem

3 ways India can tackle its human-waste problem. World Economic Forum, October 2019.

On 2 October, the government of India declared the country open defecation-free (ODF). This is a significant milestone, which has addressed mindset, behavioural change and infrastructure gaps “Before the Flush”. But what happens “After the Flush”?

It is estimated that poor sanitation costs India 5.2% of its gross domestic product (GDP) annually. While much is being done to create access to toilets, the fact remains more than 57% of human waste globally is not contained, transported, or treated in a way that safely contains harmful pathogens. wef

A staggering 78% of sewage generated in India remains untreated and is unsafely disposed of in rivers, groundwater or lakes, contaminating 90% of all surface water.

India must find ways to manage its faecal sludge to secure clean water sources to meet the needs of its burgeoning population of 1.37 billion, and facilitate their healthy, productive participation in the economy.

Read the complete article.

Surveillance of water, sanitation and hygiene in schools: A practical tool – WHO; UNICEF

Surveillance of water, sanitation and hygiene in schools: A practical tool. WHO; UNICEF, 2019. eehh

Adequate access to water, hygiene and sanitation (WASH) in schools is every child’s right, as recognized in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Protocol on Water and Health and the Ostrava Declaration on Environment and Health.

Access to WASH in schools in the pan-European region presents many and diverse challenges. A key step to improve the situation, bringing better educational and health outcomes, is high-quality surveillance to raise awareness and drive progress.

This publication provides a practical tool to support countries in strengthening surveillance of WASH in schools. The findings will inform the development of supportive regulations and improvement planning to safeguard children’s health, well-being, dignity and cognitive performance.

The tool also enables countries to use the data collected to facilitate policy dialogue and inform international reporting, including on progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal targets related to WASH in schools.

Emergency WASH biweekly update – October 15, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

This biweekly update includes an upcoming webinar and recent reports on water trucking and other topics. Also included is a brief bibliography on mobile technologies in humanitarian WASH settings. Please let us know if you have other studies and resources to add to the bibliography.

WEBINARS

November 13, 2019 Period Posse Presents | Changing the Norm: Mainstreaming Female Friendly Toilets | Speakers: David Clatworthy, IRC: Developing a female-friendly toilet toolkit for emergencies; Lea Jimera Acallar, Danish Red Cross: Innovative toilet designs in Bangladesh; Annie Msosa, WaterAid: Female-friendly public and community toilets: A Guide wateraid

REPORTS/BRIEFS

Briefing note on water trucking in refugee settings. UNHCR, 2018. This UNHCR technical guideline has been prepared for anyone involved in planning and implementing water trucking in refugee contexts including UNHCR staff, WASH organizations, water trucking contractors, governments and individuals.

Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale. HWISE, 2019. The HWISE Scale has many uses: identify populations vulnerable to water insecurity; understand causes and consequences of water insecurity; track trends in household water insecurity over time; monitor and evaluate the impact of water policies and programs.

USAID OFDA DRC Ebola Fact Sheets – September 2019.

Humanitarian Investing – Mobilizing Capital to Overcome Fragility. World Economic Forum, 2019. This paper offers an articulation of the humanitarian investing landscape and its main actors and guiding principles, building upon ongoing work that promotes new models and multistakeholder dialog to complement, not replace, existing humanitarian response mechanisms.

Global humanitarian assistance report 2019. Development Initiatives, 2019. In 2018, an estimated 206.4 million people living in 81 countries were deemed in need of humanitarian assistance. A large portion of these people continued to be concentrated in a small number of countries: six countries accounted for 80.6 million people in need.

Continue reading

Emergency WASH biweekly update – October 2, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Please let us know if you have upcoming events or recent studies and reports to feature in the next biweekly update.

REPORTS

USAID Yemen Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Fact Sheet, September 2019. USAID is implementing programming that addresses the underlying issues of limited access to safe water and sanitation. USAID’s Comprehensive WASH Support (CWS) program aims to improve access to safe and adequate water supply and basic sanitation infrastructure for households, hospitals, and schools. wateraid

Denial, Delay, Diversion: Tackling Access Challenges in an Evolving Humanitarian Landscape. CSIS, September 2019. To ensure the ability of aid to reach those who need it most and to uphold the principles of international humanitarian law, the United States should elevate humanitarian access as a foreign policy priority and work to reconcile tensions between critical national security measures and the growing needs of vulnerable populations in fragile, conflict-affected states.

Jordan: WASH Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey in Za’atari camp. REACH, July 2019. This assessment found that the integration of the water network has been successful as the vast majority of households are fully connected to both the water and waste water networks. Households have an increased understanding of the importance of water conservation practices, and a significantly greater proportion reported to practice such methods.

“Like a Drop of Water on a Fire” INADEQUATE INVESTMENT IN DURABLE SOLUTIONS FOR DROUGHT IDPS IN ETHIOPIA. Refugees International, September 2019. In the Somali region of eastern Ethiopia, drought internally displaced persons (IDPs)—people who have been forced to relocate because of the effects of severe drought—are now a forgotten population.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

WHO guidance for refugees in camps: systematic review. BMJ Open, August 2019. This is the first systematic analysis of how well WHO guidelines cover the specific clinical health needs of people in refugee camps.

Factors associated with practice of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, in press. This study was conducted to examine WASH practices and associated risk factors among the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. The present study comprised 350 participants with data collected via a semi structured questionnaire. Most respondents (84%) did not have a good knowledge concerning WASH.

Acute Water-Scarcity Monitoring for Africa. Water, September 2019. We developed a monthly monitoring system that computes annual water availability per capita based on hydrologic data from the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and gridded population data fromWorldPop.

BLOGS/ARTICLES

Averting a Cholera Epidemic in the Wake of Dual Natural Disasters. USAID Global Waters, September 2019. When Tropical Cyclone Idai made landfall March 15, 2019, it pummeled Mozambique’s fourth-largest city Beira and three neighboring provinces, leaving only 10 percent of the port city intact.

Faircap Open Water Filter. Elrha, September 2019. A low cost, small, portable antibacterial water filter that can be screwed into standard plastic bottles and can provide clean drinking water by filtering out sediment and bacteria to reduce gastrointestinal disease during emergency relief situations, refugee camps and poor urban and rural areas.

How handwashing behaviour change programmes can save lives in an emergency. By: Claudia Codsi, Private Sector Partnerships, Oxfam, August 2019. We created a program called ‘Mum’s Magic Hands’ drawing on emotional motivators, nudges and triggers to drive sustained behavior change. The results had a positive effect on mothers’ handwashing practice, increasing both awareness and practice of handwashing with soap.

150,000 refugee women and girls to receive transformative menstrual health management solution. Sanitation Updates, September 2019. The UN refugee Agency UNHCR and AFRIpads have just begun the largest rollout of reusable sanitary pad distribution and Menstrual Health Management (MHM) sensitization of refugees in Uganda.

Water Currents: WASH and Antimicrobial Resistance

Water Currents: WASH and Antimicrobial Resistance – October 1, 2019

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria or virus change to resist the action of antimicrobials (e.g., antibiotics). Currently, it is estimated that at least 700,000 people die each year due to drug-resistant diseases.

Each year, more and more common diseases are becoming untreatable and lifesaving medical procedures are becoming much riskier due to AMR. A recent UN report on AMR (“No Time to Wait,” listed below) states that drug-resistant diseases could cause 10 million deaths each year by 2050, and that by 2030, AMR could force up to 24 million people into extreme poverty. amr

This issue of Water Currents contains recent studies on the connection between AMR and water and sanitation, the One Health approach to tackling AMR, country situation reports, and other AMR–related topics.

USAID’s priorities under the U.S. Government Global Water Strategy—improving good governance, water access, and sanitation and hygiene—are considered essential to prevent and counteract the spread of global microbial resistance. In addition, USAID’s Bureau for Global Health works with international organizations and local governments, academia, and private sector partners across Asia and Africa to promote prudent use of antimicrobials in the livestock, aquaculture, and crop production sectors to minimize the likelihood of AMR development and spread.

We would like to thank staff from the Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) project, Emory University’s Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, and Global Water 2020 for suggesting AMR as a topic and for contributing content to this issue.

infocus

Overviews 
Antimicrobial Resistance: An Emerging Water, Sanitation and Hygiene IssueWorld Health Organization (WHO), 2015. This briefing note provides an overview on the role of water and waste in combating AMR and identifies key areas to explore related to risk assessment management, policy, and research.

No Time to Wait: Securing the Future from Drug-Resistant InfectionsWHO, April 2019. AMR is a global crisis that threatens a century of progress in health and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Because the drivers of AMR lie in humans, animals, plants, food, and the environment, a sustained One Health response is essential to engage and unite all stakeholders around a shared vision and goals.

Differential Drivers of Antimicrobial Resistance Across the WorldAccounts of Chemical Research, March 2019. Researchers show that high population densities in cities that suffer from poor sanitation and solid-waste disposal can potentially impact the dissemination of resistance.

Global Antimicrobial Resistance: A Complex and Dire Threat with Few Definite AnswersTropical Medicine and International Health, March 2019. Global AMR data and projections are simply alarming. Despite widespread recognition of the issue’s magnitude and urgency, the key drivers of global AMR dissemination, and how best to contain it, remain poorly defined.

The Economics of Antimicrobial Resistance and the Role of Water and Sanitation ServicesWASHeconomics, January 2019. Water, wastewater, and feces play a key role in the carriage of microorganisms and their genetic material. For example, water can act as a reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and exposure route to humans (and animals).

Read the complete issue.

CLTS Knowledge Hub webinar – Tackling Slippage

Tackling Slippage – CLTS Knowledge Hub

  • Tue, Sep 24, 2019
  • 6:00 AM – 7:30 AM EDT

To launch the new Frontiers of CLTS the CLTS Knowledge Hub is holding a webinar focusing on ways to tackle slippage in sanitation programming.

The new issue has two parts – the first looks at how slippage is defined, presents a framework for identifying slippage patterns, and revisits the factors known to contribute to slippage. clts

The second section provides six case examples of field experience of slippage and the actions taken to reverse it. It is hoped that the review lays the groundwork for more systematic learning and sharing on slippage to inform current and future programming and practice.

There is widespread recognition that slippage of open defecation free status is a challenge to sustainability across many programmes and contexts. Much has been written about how CLTS and other sanitation programmes can be set up for sustainability in order to prevent slippage from happening, this webinar examines what can be done if slippage has already happened.

A presentation will be given by the author Sophie Hickling a hygiene and sanitation specialist and a Senior Associate at MG Africa Consultants Ltd. as well as a number of practitioners who will present examples from the field. This will be followed by a Q&A.

Registration link.

 

New WSSCC resource! EQND Handbook for CLTS Facilitators

EQND handbook for CLTS facilitators

The Equality and Non-discrimination (EQND) and Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Handbook provides practical guidance for ensuring that behaviour change interventions leave no one behind.

Drawing on experience from across the sector, this handbook is specifically targeted towards those implementing or supervising CLTS interventions at the community level. Key features include:

  • A summary of EQND principles
  • Step-by-step guidance on applying these principles during pre-triggering, triggering meetings, and post-triggering follow-up visits
  • Annexes with practical tools, templates, and resources.

Two other documents of excellent reference include the Human Rights Principles and Terminology – Equality and Non-Discrimination: Supporting the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation (WSSCC, SNV and UTS) and Guidance and Tips for learning from people who may be most disadvantaged during the programme process (WSSCC) both collated by Sarah House.

As well, check out new resources published by the CLTS Knowledge Hub: