Category Archives: Research

Globalwaters.org updates | New WHO, WSUP reports | WASH research updates

Recent updates to Globalwaters.org

Bruce Gordon and Oliver Subasinghe on the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report – The latest podcast from Global Waters Radio features a conversation with Bruce Gordon, Coordinator for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization (WHO), and Oliver Subasinghe, Communications and Data Advisor with the USAID Water Office.

Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

DESIGNING VIABLE SANITATION ENTERPRISES – A MARKET BASED SANITATION GAME – USAID/WASHPaLS developed a game called Designing Viable Sanitation Enterprises to serve as a tool for MBS practitioners to understand and appreciate the interactions between the elements of a sanitation enterprise, the entrepreneur, and the broader context.

USAID Seeks Input on its Water and Development Research Agenda – To take advantage of the concentrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)–sector knowledge represented at the 2019 University of North Carolina Water and Health Conference, we held a consultation designed to share our process in developing a research agenda.

USAID in the News – Cambodia – Stone Family Foundation, IDE and USAID Launch Sanitation Development Impact Bond.

Reports

Watering the NDCs: National Climate Planning for 2020 and Beyond. AGWA, 2019. Watering the NDCs provides guiding principles and recommendations for national climate planners and decision-makers to help ensure they meet their goals set out in National Adaptation Plans and Nationally Determined Contributions.

Safer water, better health. WHO, 2019. This high disease burden could be largely prevented with existing interventions and prevention strategies, which are described in this report.

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Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice – WHO/UNICEF position paper

Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice – WHO/UNICEF position paper, November 2019. Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

The WHO/UNICEF position paper summarizes the studies, contextualizes the findings within the wider body of evidence and distills the implications for future investments. The paper is accompanied by a recorded interview with the heads of WASH for WHO and UNICEF and the lead author of a consensus statement from leading researchers.

An excerpt – What are the implications for WASH programming?

The findings of WASH Benefits and SHINE are not a reason to do less on WASH. Conversely, the historical significance of WASH in disease control, the strong conceptual basis for WASH (Box 2) and the need for WASH to reduce the potential for outbreaks in addition to breaking endemic transmission all indicate that the WASH sector collectively needs to do more and better to reach the ambitious targets of the SDGs.

The findings also highlight blind spots in typical WASH programming – particularly the role of animal waste and fecal contamination of food during irrigation and food preparation that are often overlooked in WASH programme design.

Many have called for transformative WASH In response to the studies but with some ambiguity around what is meant. While the consensus is that this implies interventions that lead to a comprehensively clean environment (Box 1), the path to this result is not universally agreed.

Globalwaters.org updates | New reports | WASH research

Recent updates to Globalwaters.org

Bruce Gordon and Oliver Subasinghe on the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report – The latest podcast from Global Waters Radio features a conversation with Bruce Gordon, Coordinator for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization (WHO), and Oliver Subasinghe, Communications and Data Advisor with the USAID Water Office. 3-2-iDE-Cambodia WASH DIB-PR-07_Photo by Chhom Dinat

Designing Viable Sanitation Enterprises: A Market Based Sanitation Game – USAID/WASHPaLS developed a game called Designing Viable Sanitation Enterprises to serve as a tool for MBS practitioners to understand and appreciate the interactions between the elements of a sanitation enterprise, the entrepreneur, and the broader context.

USAID Seeks Input on its Water and Development Research Agenda – To take advantage of the concentrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)–sector knowledge represented at the 2019 University of North Carolina Water and Health Conference, we held a consultation designed to share our process in developing a research agenda.

USAID in the News – Cambodia – Stone Family Foundation, IDE and USAID Launch Sanitation Development Impact Bond.

Reports

Watering the NDCs: National Climate Planning for 2020 and Beyond. AGWA, 2019. Watering the NDCs provides guiding principles and recommendations for national climate planners and decision-makers to help ensure they meet their goals set out in National Adaptation Plans and Nationally Determined Contributions.

Safer water, better health. WHO, 2019. This high disease burden could be largely prevented with existing interventions and prevention strategies, which are described in this report.

Continue reading

USAID announces funding for global research partnerships

USAID Announces $2.5 Million in Global Research Partnerships. USAID, November 2019.

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) announced $2.5 million dollars to support global research partnerships that will promote advancements across the full spectrum of discovery, from building new knowledge to piloting and scaling game-changing breakthroughs.

The Agency selected a total of 32 research projects for funding through the Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) program managed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The lead researcher for each project carried out overseas will work in tandem with a U.S. Government-funded researcher. By increasing international scientific cooperation, the United States can accelerate progress on the Journey to Self-Reliance. usaid

The 32 selected research projects span 18 countries on four continents, and range in amount between $30,000 and $80,000. Researchers will investigate a number of topics, including health, water and sanitation, agriculture, and economic growth.

WASH grants include:

AFRICA

Uganda – Project 8-186: Promoting hand hygiene through production and use of locally produced alcohol hand-rub in health facilities in Uganda
PI: Esther Buregyeya, Makerere University School of Public Health
U.S. Partner: Christine Moe, Emory University (funded by National Institutes of Health)

Uganda – Project 8-187: Improving hand hygiene practice among healthcare workers through mhealth and environmental cues in Kampala metropolitan area
PI: Richard Kibirango Mugambe, Makerere University School of Public Health
U.S. Partner:: Christine Moe, Emory University (funded by National Institutes of Health)

Burkina Faso – Project 8-116: Increasing access to sanitation services integrated with resource recovery in rural Burkina Faso
PI: Ynoussa Maiga, University of Ouaga I Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo
U.S. Partner: James Mihelcic, University of South Florida (funded by the National Science Foundation)

ASIA

Vietnam – Project 8-6: Sustainable groundwater management under socioeconomic and climate change in Mekong Delta, Vietnam
PI: Chau Nguyen Xuan Quang, Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh City, with co-PI Sangam Shrestha, Asian Institute of Technology
U.S. Partner: John Sabo, Arizona State University (funded by the National Science Foundation)

Vietnam – Project 8-14: Improved management of water and sediment yield in 3S basin – upper part of Mekong River Basin
PI: Duong Bui, National Center for Water Resources Planning and Investigation, in partnership with the National University of Civil Engineering
U.S. Partner: Venkataraman Lakshmi, University of Virginia (funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

MIDDLE EAST

Iraq – Project 8-113: Evaluate land management practices to improve water quality and address drought and salinity and train stakeholders
PI: Hamad Abdulghafor, University of Baghdad
U.S. Partner: Ranjith Udawatta, University of Missouri (funded by the United States Department of Agriculture/ Agricultural Research Service)

The association of water carriage, water supply and sanitation usage with maternal and child health

The association of water carriage, water supply and sanitation usage with maternal and child health. A combined analysis of 49 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 41 countries. Authors: Jo-Anne L. Geere and Paul R. Hunter. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health

Results: Compared to households in which no-one collects water, water fetching by any household member is associated with reduced odds of a woman giving birth in a health care facility. hw

Adults collecting water is associated with increased relative risk of childhood death, children collecting water is associated with increased odds of diarrheal disease and women or girls collecting water is associated with reduced uptake of antenatal care and increased odds of leaving a child under five alone for one or more hours, one or more days per week.

Unimproved water supply is associated with childhood diarrhea, but not child deaths, or growth scores.

When the percentage of people using improved sanitation is more than 80% an association with reduced childhood death and stunting was observed, and when more than 60%, usage of improved sanitation was associated with reduction of diarrhea and acute undernutrition.

WASH weekly research updates – November 12, 2019

In additional to the studies and resources listed below, recent updates to Globalwaters.org include:

Many thanks to Sheela Sinharoy, sheela.sinharoy@emory.edu, for sharing the 2 studies below on structural equation modelling and sanitation policies and to John Sauer, jsauer@psi.org, for the blog post, 3 ways India can tackle its human-waste problem. The Weekly WASH Research Updates are also posted on Sanitation Updates.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Using structural equation modelling to untangle sanitation, water and hygiene pathways for intervention improvements in height-for-age in children <5 years old. International Journal of Epidemiology, October 2019. Authors: Heather Reese, Sheela S Sinharoy, Thomas Clasen – Our finding, that water impacts HAZ through the sanitation pathway, is an important and actionable insight for WaSH programming.

Review of drivers and barriers of water and sanitation policies for urban informal settlements in low-income and middle-income countries. Utilities Policy, October 2019. Authors: Sheela S.Sinharoy, Rachel Pittluck, Thomas Clasen – Ensuring responsive water and sanitation policies for informal settlements will require inter-disciplinary collaboration and both top-down and bottom-up approaches.

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Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of diarrhoea among children younger than 5 years

Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of diarrhoea among children younger than 5 years: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infectious Diseases, October 30, 2019.

Authors – GBD 2017 Diarrhoeal Disease Collaborators: Collaborators listed at the end of the Article lancet

An excerpt – Diarrhea was responsible for an estimated 533 768 deaths among children younger than 5 years globally in 2017, a rate of 78·4 deaths (70·1–87·1) per 100 000 children. The diarrhea mortality rate ranged between countries by over 685 deaths per 100 000 children. Diarrhea mortality per 100 000 globally decreased by 69·6% between 1990 and 2017.

Among the risk factors considered in this study, those responsible for the largest declines in the diarrhea mortality rate were reduction in exposure to unsafe sanitation (13·3% decrease, 11·2–15·5), childhood wasting (9·9% decrease, 9·6–10·2), and low use of oral rehydration solution (6·9% decrease, 4·8–8·4).

Diarrhea mortality has declined substantially since 1990, although there are variations by country. Improvements in sociodemographic indicators might explain some of these trends, but changes in exposure to risk factors—particularly unsafe sanitation, childhood growth failure, and low use of oral rehydration solution—appear to be related to the relative and absolute rates of decline in diarrhea mortality.

Although the most effective interventions might vary by country or region, identifying and scaling up the interventions aimed at preventing and protecting against diarrhea that have already reduced diarrhea mortality could further avert many thousands of deaths due to this illness.