Category Archives: Publications

2018 WASH reports by WSUP

This links to selected 2018 reports on the Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor website. wsup-logox2 (1)

Understanding the Indian rural sanitation market

How stakeholders should work together to end open defecation.


Toilet block in Odisha, India. Photo: Andrea van der Kerk/IRC

Solving rural sanitation problems in India requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders. These include government, programme implementers, financing institutions, entrepreneurs and households. Understanding the roles, strengths and weaknesses of each stakeholder, how they interact and complement each other, is key to achieving India’s ambitious goal of ending open defecation by 2019.

As a follow-up to the Sanitation Innovation Accelerator, IRC, Ennovent and Ecociate Consultants commissioned a study to gain insights in the sanitation market in Bihar and Odisha, two states with relatively low levels of sanitation coverage: 29% and 43% respectively. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months (from January to March 2017) in two rural districts: one with a high population density and situated in a heavy clay silt agricultural plain (Samastipur district, Bihar) and the other with a low population density situated in a sandy tropical coast (Ganjam district, Odisha).

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Upcoming webinars, new World Bank water utilities toolkit, recent WASH research


December 13, 2017 – USAID/WASHPaLS webinar on CLTS and open defecation – The USAID-funded Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) Project invites you to a webinar examining how community-led total sanitation (CLTS) has contributed to the goal of ending open defecation.


Toolkit on the Aggregation of Water Supply and Sanitation Utilities. World Bank, December 8. This report describes the methodology applied and outcomes of the Global Study on WSS Utility Aggregation implemented by the Water Global Practice. The work conducted has allowed providing concrete, evidence-based guidance to policy makers and practitioners regarding when, why, and how water and sanitation utilities can work together (“aggregate”) to successfully deliver specific policy outcomes, such as better services or lower costs.


‘We do not know’: a qualitative study exploring boys perceptions of menstruation in India. BMC Reproductive Health, December 8. These findings provide some optimism that males can become advocates in moving forward the MHM agenda. The reasons for this are twofold: boys were keen for knowledge about menstruation…

Role, ownership and presence of domestic animals in peri-urban households of Kisumu, Kenya. Zoonoses & Public Health, December 5. This research demonstrates the high prevalence of animal ownership in a low-income and high-density peri-urban neighbourhood of an African city.

Affordability in the provision of water and sanitation services: Evolving strategies and imperatives to realise human rights. International Journal of Water Governance, November 2017. In sum, affordability is attained throughvarious efforts: a coordinated institutional structure, clear legal provisions (i.e. formally recognizing the HRtWS), contextually specific policy and plans, accountable regulatory mechanisms and efficiently organised service providers.


Moving up the sanitation ladder with the help of microfinance in urban Malawi. Jnl WASH for Dev, December 2017. Organisations seeking to improve access to safely managed sanitation by promoting alternative sanitation technologies would succeed if households have access to affordable alternative sanitation technologies and microfinance for sanitation. However, poorer households would need more affordable improved sanitation technologies, flexible microfinance options and possibly targeted subsidies to gain access to safely managed sanitation

Recent WASH publications from USAID, WHO and others





Open access sanitation articles from IWA

These articles will be open access until December 1, 2017.

Toilet Board Coalition reports for World Toilet Day 2017

THE CIRCULAR SANITATION ECONOMY: New Pathways to Commercial and Societal Benefits: Faster at Scale. Toilet Board Coalition (TBC), Nov 2017.

To demonstrate the commercial viability of the Circular Sanitation Economy, by backcasting from the future, to envisage the new business models operating at city scale, and to explore two key questions: Will current Circular Economy Sanitation business models be profitable at scale, and will public subsidy still be required? What are the key elements of the commercial case – the key arguments needed at the inflexion points where scale-up decisions are made?

THE SANITATION ECONOMY IN INDIA: Market Estimates & Insights. TBC, Nov 2017.

OBJECTIVES. To develop a baseline understanding of the potential of new markets derived from the Sanitation Economy as well as a quantified estimation of the opportunity; To identify opportunity spaces for business (vs. specific strategies); To inspire action amongst businesses, regulatory bodies and other actors needed to develop new markets

The ABC of WASH in Schools in India

ABC of WASH in Schools“The ABC of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) improvement in schools” in India by the the Urban Management Centre is a handbook developed under the Ahmedabad Sanitation Action Lab (ASAL), a three year action research program.

The program was specially designed to implement innovative solutions to school WASH  problems in identified slum settlements of Ahmedabad. ASAL was led by the Urban Management Centre (UMC) in partnership with Government of Gujarat (GoG) and the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) with support from United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

The handbook is a compilation of the strategies adopted, tools developed and materials used to improve WASH infrastructure in schools. It will be useful for schools as well as NGOs working with schools on water and sanitation. It can be used by any authority whether national, state or city level as a resource for implementation of programs in school at different scales. The handbook can also be used as a reference for policy or decision making as well as elaboration of programs.

Download the publicationThe ABC of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) improvement in schools“, September 2017, 54 p.

See the full list of reports, tools, manuals and videos of the Ahmedabad Sanitation Action Lab (ASAL) programme.