Category Archives: Publications

IDS sanitation research | PEER research proposals | Recent WASH research

IDS SANITATION RESEARCH

Who is being left behind in Swachh Bharat Mission? How do we include them? Immersive research report by WaterAid India with Institute of Development Studies, gives insight into who is missed in sanitation programming in areas of India and how to include them. podcast

‘More or less: A rapid review of ‘water for toilets’ in rural India’, examines both technical and behavioural aspects surrounding water collection, management and consumption related to toilet use in rural India. It provides recommendations for steps forward.

Retrofitting of toilets is a complex and challenging stream of work and is included as one of the main components of Open Defecation Free-Sustainability (ODF-S) plans under Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin (SBM-G). This rapid topic review ‘Retrofitting: The Next Step for the Swachh Bharat Mission?’ aims to provide recent evidence and insights into the scale and nature of the challenges of retrofitting.

PEER RESEARCH PROPOSALS

PEER Cycle 9 Call for Proposals Now Open – On behalf of PEER’s sponsors at USAID, the National Academies are happy to announce that this year’s cycle of PEER is now open and accepting proposals. There are several country-specific focus areas: urban WASH and transboundary water in Afghanistanclean energy in Bangladeshmultiple research sectors in Tunisia, and bioremediation of dioxins and furans in Vietnam.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

School-based, blacklight handwashing program can improve handwashing quality and knowledge among pre-school aged children. Evaluation and Program Planning, February 2020. Authors: Deirdre Dingman, Jingwei Wub, Heather M.Murphy – Puzzles and structured handwashing observations can be used as handwashing evaluation tools. Use of a black light technology as an educational tool can help to improve handwashing quality among pre-school aged children.

Impact of the “BALatrine” Intervention on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Central Java, Indonesia: A Pilot Study. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., Dec 2019. We tested a low-cost, locally designed and constructed all-weather latrine (the “BALatrine”), together with community education promoting appropriate hygiene-related behaviour, to determine whether this integrated intervention effectively controlled soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections.

Relationship of sanitation, water boiling, and mosquito nets to health biomarkers in a rural subsistence population. Am Jnl Human Biology, Dec 2019. This suggests that relatively low cost and low maintenance public health interventions may wish to focus on latrine use, as there is unmet need and potential health benefits for those who use latrines. Additionally, while the cost is higher, public health organizations aimed at improving sanitation may be able to use minimally invasive field‐collected biomarkers as a diagnostic to objectively test the efficacy of interventions with greater specificity than anthropometric measurements.

Citywide Inclusive Sanitation through Scheduled Desludging Services: Emerging Experience from India. Front. Environ. Sci., 27 November 2019. This paper first reviews the need for regular desludging of septic tanks. It then outlines the emerging experience of design and implementation of scheduled desludging for inclusive, equitable, and sustainable sanitation to achieve social and environmental benefits in two Indian cities. In these cities, a performance-linked annuity payment framework is used to engage a private desludging enterprise. Payment is met through a sanitation tax and transfer from the general property taxes.

VIDEOS

Kenya RAPID video shows impact in year 4. MWA, Dec 2019. See this above video for an update on Kenya RAPID as it nears its fifth and final year of implementation.

BLOG POSTS/NEWS ARTICLES

Water, Sanitation Can Systematically Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in India. The Wire, Dec 2019. Limited access to water, sanitation and waste management services, increases risk of infections and leads to greater dependence on antibiotics which contributes to AMR.

By, for, and of the People: How Citizen Science Enhances Water Security. New Security Beat, Dec 2019. This article is part of ECSP’s Water Security for a Resilient World series, a partnership with USAID’s Sustainable Water Partnership and Winrock International to share stories about global water security.

Global Waters Stories – November 2019: Celebrate World Toilet Day

Global Waters Stories – November 2019: Celebrate World Toilet Day

World Toilet Day 2019: These Countries are Making Sanitation Gains with USAID’s Help
As we celebrate the transformative public health impacts of improved sanitation this November 19, USAID takes you from Ethiopia to Indonesia in this photo essay to showcase how innovative thinking, government action, and private sector participation have helped generate some of the greatest recent sanitation success stories around the world. globalwaters

Strengthening Urban Indonesia’s Water and Sanitation Systems – USAID is working with Indonesia’s government and private sector to tackle the challenge of untreated waste through the regulation of sludge removal and provision of financing for septic tank construction.

Podcast: 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water Report – Global Waters Radio presents the WHO’s Bruce Gordon and USAID’s Oliver Subasinghe discussing this report’s key takeaways and how its data help inform the Agency’s approach to WASH investments

Read the complete issue.

Global Waters – July 2019

Taking the Pulse of a Water Lifeline to Hundreds of Millions

Asia’s great mountain ranges feed vast river systems that deliver snow melt, glacier ice melt, and rainwater to millions of people in downstream communities. globalwaters

But these resources are declining. USAID–supported efforts to unlock their secrets is helping prepare these communities for a more water-variable future. Read more.

Global Water and Development Report Released

USAID’s annual Global Water and Development Report provides funding data and spotlights country activities. A new companion page tracks how the Agency delivers results to millions.

Raising Voices to Save Water in the Ararat Valley

To address groundwater loss in Armenia, PURE Water promotes civic engagement, good governance, and increased transparency of water management policies and systems. Read more.

Saving Livelihoods One Drop at a Time

The Lebanon Water Project is helping the country better manage its water resources through small grants that improve the quality and quantity of water available to parched farmers. Read more.

Check out Recent Issues of Water Currents

For the latest water-related research, resources, and news, check out recent issues: Handwashing Research | Peri-Urban Sanitation. Or visit Globalwaters.org for back issues.

Link to the complete issue.

Identifying the last 10% of households practising open defecation in rural Tanzania

Since 2017, SNV and the Government of Tanzania have been implementing the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) programme in eight Tanzanian districts. To date, the number of households that use toilets has increased to 90%. In the period March–April 2019, SNV Tanzania undertook a household survey in the eight project districts to identify the 10% of households still practising open defecation or sharing toilets despite the concerted government and SNV sanitation interventions. The findings show the majority of the households still practising open defecation and sharing latrines in the rural districts of Tanzania are not those commonly cited by the literature and sanitation programming – the people in poverty, the elderly people, people with disabilities, and those with other specific vulnerabilities. The majority in ‘the last mile’ are: 1) the ‘defiant’ households that have the socio-economic resources to build themselves latrines but prefer to practise open defecation or share toilets; 2) the socially isolated households that do not have a financially able family member who can support them; and 3) the geographically isolated households that are far from information centres. The SNV study also revealed a relatively high percentage of households headed by single mothers and those living in difficult terrains as part of the last mile. Furthermore, the study identified opportunities to increase access to sanitation among the last mile groups. These are: 1) introduction of behaviour change re-enforcement interventions tailored to different target groups; 2) promotion of context-specific sanitation technologies; and 3) introduction of community-led ‘social exclusion’ strategies.

Read the full report. SNV, 2019. Identifying the last 10% of households practising open defecation in rural Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: SNV Tanzania. 14 p.

USAID WASH in the News

Links to the news articles below can by found in the USAID in the News section of the Globalwaters.org website. Be sure to check out the website for updates on USAID WASH-related activities and publications: usaidnews

  • Zimbabwe – Solar Garden Changes Lives in Rural Gwanda
  • Vietnam – USAID Launches Water Supply Systems in Thanh Hoa Province
  • As Global Population Grows, This Global Collaboration Works To Ensure Adequate Food And Water
  • Leveraging Satellites and the Internet of Things, SweetSense Facilitates Water Service Access in Kenya and Water Resource Management in California
  • Water Security in an Uncertain Future: Enhancing Water Resources Management and Planning by Reducing Climate and Weather Related Risks
  • USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) – Meet Our Experts: Trevor White

Read more news articles.

 

 

 

Global Waters – May 2019 issue

The latest edition of Global Waters Stories from the USAID Water Office is out now:

globalwaters

  • Menstrual hygiene promotion empowers girls and women in Ghana
  • A podcast with water expert and engineer Eric Viala about water challenges in the Sahel
  • Harnessing the power of private sector partnerships to improve urban water security in the Philippines and more.

Be sure to explore the latest issue.

Innovative approaches to sustain handwashing with soap and open defecation free status in rural communities in Tanzania

By SSH4A Tanzania

In Tanzania, SNV has developed, under the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene For All programme, two innovative approaches to sustain handwashing with soap and open defecation free status in rural communities. These are triggering with soap at vaccination centres and Jirani (neighbours) sanitation groups.

The first intervention consists of triggering at vaccination centres as they were found to be ideal places to raise awareness of the importance of washing hands with soap among pregnant women, mothers and other caregivers.

The second intervention is based on having neighbours who monitor the sanitation and hygiene progress of the households closest to their homes and sensitise other neighbours on the importance of building, taking care of, and improving sanitation and handwashing facilities.

The following case studies provide practical information for implementing the interventions, and brief discussions on the remaining challenges and lessons learned by the SNV team and their partners on the ground:

SSH4A Tanzania, 2019. Emotional demonstrations (emo-demos) of handwashing with soap at vaccination centres. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: SNV Tanzania. 8 p. Download case study

SSH4A Tanzania, 2019. Jirani sanitation groups : sustaining open defecation free status in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: SNV Tanzania Download case study

.