Category Archives: Resources

Recent WASH research on water carrying, behavior change, container-based sanitation, etc.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Putting the “A” into WaSH: a call for integrated management of water, animals, sanitation, and hygiene. Lancet Planetary Health, August 2019. The first step—putting the “A” into WASH—is to shift the thinking to accelerate progress towards transformative WASH by considering pathways of enteropathogen transmission that are not currently central to WaSH strategies. We believe more substantial reductions in household and environmental fecal contamination are possible through concerted efforts to collectively improve the health of animals, humans, and the environment, while maintaining the benefits of livestock ownership. ghana

The association of water carriage, water supply and sanitation usage with maternal and child health. A combined analysis of 49 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 41 countries. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2 September 2019. Fetching water is associated with poorer maternal and child health outcomes, depending on who collects water. The percentage of people using improved sanitation seems to be more important than type of toilet facility, and must be high to observe an association with reduced child deaths and diarrhea. Water access on premises, and near universal usage of improved sanitation, is associated with improvements to maternal and child health.

Theory-driven formative research to inform the design of a national sanitation campaign in Tanzania. PLoS One, August 2019. The resulting Theory of Change recommended that the intervention should surprise people with a novel conversation about toilets, promote toilets as a means of conferring status, and introduce a perceived urgency to ‘act now’.

Behaviour settings theory applied to domestic water use in Nigeria: A new conceptual tool for the study of routine behavior. Social Science & Medicine, August 2019. Improving public health will require the disruption of settings, for example, through bringing water infrastructure directly to the home, through the sale of new props that facilitate hygienic routines, or in the disruption of gender roles via the promotion of new norms.

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low-income settlements. Waterlines, July 2019. Drawing on an initial review of existing CBS services, this paper identifies and evaluates these factors in relation to establishing CBS in a new service location. By applying a weighted scoring matrix to these factors, the potential viability of CBS services has been assessed for urban informal settlements in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya? Science of The Total Environment, 1 December 2019. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information.

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Globalwaters.org updates|WASH research|Reports from World Bank, UNICEF, MWA, Nature Conservancy

In addition to the studies and reports below, recent updates to Globalwaters.org include a new Resources page and the blog post USAID at World Water Week: How Strong Governance Attracts Investment

JOURNAL ARTICLES wateraid

The implications of three major new trials for the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene on childhood diarrhea and stunting: a consensus statement. BMC Medicine, August 2019. Our view is that these three new trials do not show that WASH in general cannot influence child linear growth, but they do demonstrate that these specific interventions had no influence in settings where stunting remains an important public health challenge. We support a call for transformative WASH, a comprehensive package of WASH interventions is needed that is tailored to address the local exposure landscape and enteric disease burden.

Effects of complexity of handwashing instructions on handwashing procedure replication in low-income urban slums in Bangladesh: a randomized non-inferiority field trial. Jnl WASH for Dev, Sept 2019. Simple handwashing steps are easier to remember for long time periods compared to complex steps.

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USAID WASHPaLS study – Policy Diffusion in the Rural Sanitation Sector: Lessons from Community-Led Total Sanitation

Policy Diffusion in the Rural Sanitation Sector: Lessons from Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). World Development, August 2019.

Authors: Valentin Zuin; Caroline Delaire; Rachel Peletz; Alice Cock-Esteb; Ranjiv Khush; Jeff Albert

Worldwide, 892 million people practice open defecation, most of whom live in rural areas of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is the most widely deployed approach to generate demand for, and use of sanitation facilities. CLTS relies on behavioral change and community self-enforcement to end open defecation.

Since its genesis in Bangladesh in 1999, CLTS has spread to approximately 60 countries, mostly in Asia and Africa, and is employed by the majority of development organizations operating in rural sanitation. This paper uses a qualitative approach to analyze the reasons and processes that drove the wide diffusion of CLTS.

We show that CLTS was embraced because it was perceived as a fast and effective solution to the problem of open defecation, one which was in line with the decentralization and community participation paradigms, at a time when donors and governments were looking for strategies to meet the MDG for sanitation.

CLTS spread under the leadership of influential donors, NGOs, persuasive practitioners, and academics. Face-to-face interactions among members of this network and local governments at conferences and workshops played a central role in the diffusion of the approach.

The use of experiential learning during study tours and workshop field visits has been crucial to persuade government actors at different levels, NGOs, and donors to use the CLTS approach. Notably, robust scientific evidence played little role in the diffusion of CLTS. We conclude by making suggestions to strengthen the evidence base for rural sanitation policies.

Sustainable Total Sanitation – Nigeria: Final Research Report – Institute for Fiscal Studies

Sustainable Total Sanitation – Nigeria: Final Research Report – Institute for Fiscal Studies, 2019.

Key findings and policy lessons

  • Reducing OD is intimately tied to increasing toilet ownership in Nigeria
  • CLTS improved sanitation and reduced OD in poor communities
  • Door-to-door sales agents are important
  • Targeting CLTS interventions based on community characteristics (in particular their relative wealth status) can increase policy impacts.
  • CLTS increased toilet ownership among households in poor areas without actually removing financial constraints, but these constraints remain important for households with no toilet.
  • SanMark is still a young intervention, and it is difficult to assess its effectiveness at addressing the sanitation gap at this stage.
  • Policymakers should monitor and continue to evaluate the costeffectiveness of this intervention further before considering a SanMark scale-up.
  • Policymakers should consider alternative policies that address financial constraints in both poor and richer areas, such as targeted subsidies or credit lines. These policies could complement the efforts of both CLTS and SanMark by alleviating households’ main constraints

World Water Week 2019 – Water Currents, August 20, 2019

World Water Week 2019 – Water Currents, August 20, 2019

Policymakers, researchers, and private sector representatives from around the world will soon gather in Stockholm for World Water Week, where they will be discussing local and global efforts to strengthen water security in a changing world. Convened by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), this year’s conference will run from August 25-30. siwi

This issue of Water Currents provides information about this year’s World Water Week sessions, highlights USAID participation, and features recent studies and resources related to this year’s conference theme — “Water for Society: Including All.”

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Events 
World Water Week 2019. World Water Week is an annual focal point for discussion of global water issues. Some of the resources that can be found on the official conference website include the conference program and the Seminars Abstract volume, a compilation of the oral and written scientific presentations that have been chosen for this year’s seminars.

USAID at Stockholm World Water Week 2019. This year’s USAID sessions will address topics ranging from elevating women’s role in water sector leadership to promoting self-reliance through improved financing of water and sanitation services.

Inclusive WASH
World Water Development Report 2019: Leaving No One BehindUN Water, March 2019. This report demonstrates why improvements in water resources management and access to water supply and sanitation services are essential steps for addressing various social and economic inequities.

Leaving No One Behind: SWS Briefing SeriesSanitation and Water for All, October 2018. This briefing note examines how SWA partners can work together to eliminate inequalities in access to water and sanitation.

Read the complete article.

WASH Training and Educational Events and Resources (updated August 29, 2019)

WASH Training and Educational Events and Resources (updated August 29, 2019)

Sources checked

  • Bushproof Technical Training
  • CAWST
  • Coursera MOOC
  • Global Water Partnership (GWP)
  • International Water Association (IWA)
  • International Water Centre 
  • IRC
  • Mzuzu University (Malawi)
  • UNC Water Institute
  • UNDP Cap-Net
  • UNESCO-IHE (Delft)
  • Institut International de l’Eau – 2iE (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)
  • Asian Institute of Technology – AIT (Bangkok, Thailand)
  • WEDC
  • Globalwaters.orgtraining courses and resources.
  • Other?

New Additions – August 29, 2019

BushProof – Specializing in water supply solutions for remote and difficult environments. 

New Additions – August 19, 2019

 


CENTRE FOR AFFORDABLE WATER AND SANITATION TECHNOLOGY (CAWST)

  • Training Workshops – Delivered by CAWST and its local training partners. Designed for WASH managers, government staff, field workers and community workers.

COURSERA ONLINE COURSES

Global Water Partnership (GWP)

  • Pan-Africa Training on International Water Law and Water Governance – Improved Transboundary Water Investment in Africa – GWP is organising a training on Water Governance and International Water Law (IWL) in Africa together with partner organisations. The training takes place in Kampala, Uganda, 11-14 November 2019. The deadline to apply is 6 September.

IRC

WASH Systems Academy – A dynamic online platform to assist WASH sector professionals in applying a WASH systems strengthening approach. Interactive, engaging and free—the WASH Systems Academy makes driving for change for this human right fun and available to all. Listen to podcasts, watch animations, connect with others in the forums, create your own materials and much more! Watch this video to see what the academy has to offer:

  •  WASH systems strengthening – From 16th September to 27th September 2019 the free basic course ‘WASH systems strengthening: the basics’ will be available on the WASH Systems Academy. The basic course takes on average 16 hours and is to be completed in 2 weeks. At the end of the course, you will understand the WASH systems strengthening approach. The course contains the key concepts of the approach and has cases and examples where the approach is used. This course is also available in October 2019 and November 2019.

International Water Association (IWA)

International Water Centre – We were founded in 2005 with the vision of harnessing the diverse expertise of the world’s leading water professionals, to educate and empower individuals, communities and organizations, to build capacity to respond to water challenges in innovative ways. Some of its online courses include:

  • Introduction to WASH for development, starts September 16, 2019 – This online course will provide those starting their career or preparing for project work in the WASH sector with the fundamental principles and approaches to better engage and support efforts to work towards achieving SDG6. Cost: $548.00

  • Water reform and governance, starts August 20, 2020 – In this online course, we will explore these questions and draw on practical examples to demonstrate how water reform processes are successful when they are context driven, inclusive of direct and indirect users of water, take a whole-of-water-cycle approach to reform, and deeply consider multiple societal outcomes. Cost: $648.00

Mzuzu University (Malawi) – The Mzuzu University Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation participates in research, water quality and fecal sludge analysis, training, consultancies, outreach programs, and the practical application of research findings. The venue for all short courses will be Mzuzu University, Mzuzu, Malawi. For registration please contact mzuniwatsan@gmail.com

  • Geographic Information System (GIS) introduction | 5 to 9 August 2019 (5 full days) | Fee per participant is MK250,000.
  • Environmental Impact Assessments in Malawi | 12 to 16 August 2019 (5 full days) | Fee per participant is MK250,000.
  • Low-cost sanitation | 13 to 15 August 2019 (3 full days) | Fee per participant is MK150,000. 
  • Monitoring, evaluation and learning | 27 to 30 August 2019 (4 full days) | Fee per participant is MK200,000.
  • Constructing safe and sustainable groundwater wells | 29 and 30 August 2019 (2 full days)| Fee per participant is MK100,000.
  • Outcome mapping: Building learning and reflection into development programs | 2 to 6 September 2019 (5 full days)  Fee per participant is MK250,000.

UNC Water Institute

  • Water Safety Plans: An Online Distance Learning Program –  The Water Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA) is offering a 9-week online learning course on Water Safety Plans (WSPs) aimed at those in the water industry with management, engineering, or operational responsibilities. 

UNDP Cap-Net Virtual Campus – The Virtual Campus is an innovative platform to support water capacity development.

  • Water Integrity: Principles and Concepts, 2019 Edition – This online instructor-led course is meant to offer a “grain” of the needed knowledge required by water practitioners, public officials, NGO personnel, and anybody else who want to contribute to increase the efficiency and integrity of water management.  This course will take place between September 30 and November 29, 2019. Interested participants may apply online until September 7. There is no course fee. Sponsored by a partnership of international development organizations, the course is free.

  • An Introduction to WASH Climate Resilience Programming – This course aims to provide an introduction on how to effectively implement WASH climate resilience programming. The course will ultimately build the capacity of WASH sector professionals to improve existing programmes, making them more sustainable and climate-resilient. A certificate will be provided on completion of the course. There is no course fee. Sponsored by a partnership of international development organizations, the course is free. Interested participants must apply for this course before Wednesday, October 10, 2018.

  • Solar Powered Water Systems: An Overview of Principles and Practice – This online instructor-led course aims to address common misconceptions regarding SPWS, raise awareness and increase utilization of existing standards and reference materials, and ultimately improve sustainability and impact of SPWS. This course will take place between September 16 and November 3, 2019. Interested participants may apply online until August 16. Course language is English.There is no course fee. Sponsorship for the course is provided by a partnership of international development organisations.

WEDC

  • Online courses in Water Management for Development – Some of the core modules are on: Management of Water and Environmental Sanitation Services; Management of Village Water Services; Water and the Natural Environment; Research Methods; Management and Operation of Water Utilities; Urban Sanitation Management

UNESCO-IHE (Delft) – https://www.un-ihe.org/short-courses – Short courses are meant for professionals – or groups of professionals – with a specific area of interest and a limited amount of time. The focus and content of short courses vary from specialised and technical matters to challenges and approaches in management. Didactical methods used in these short courses include lectures, individual or group exercises in the classroom, behind the computer, or in the laboratory.

 

USAID Updates | Aug 2019 WASH research | Blog updates

USAID UPDATES

USAID Participation at Stockholm World Water Week 2019 – USAID sessions this year will cover topics ranging from the role of women in water leadership to promoting self-reliance through financing of water and sanitation services to building resilient water and food systems. armenia

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Effect of in-line drinking water chlorination at the point of collection on child diarrhoea in urban Bangladesh: a double-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Global Health, Sept 2019. Passive chlorination at the point of collection could be an effective and scalable strategy in low-income urban settings for reducing child diarrhea and for achieving global progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 to attain universal access to safe and affordable drinking water.

Experiences of capacity strengthening in sanitation and hygiene research in Africa and Asia: the SHARE Research Consortium. Health Research Policy and Systems, Aug 2019. Strategies that yielded success were learning by doing (supporting institutions and postgraduate students on sanitation and hygiene research), providing fellowships to appoint mid-career scientists to support personal and institutional development, and supporting tailored capacity-building plans.

Toward Complementary Food Hygiene Practices among Child Caregivers in Rural Malawi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 7 Aug. Selected contextual (i.e., presence of handwashing facility, locally made dish rack and ownership of animals) and psychosocial factors which include normative, ability, and self-regulation (remembering) factors have been identified as strong predictors for the success of an intervention that focuses on washing of utensils with soap, keeping of utensils on an elevated place, and hand washing with soap at critical times.

Broad approaches to cholera control in Asia: Water, sanitation and handwashing. Vaccine, Aug 2. Household interventions only marginally reduce cholera risk. Water and sanitation infrastructure provides multiple benefits. New approaches and institutional flexibility needed to address cholera.

The future of groundwater in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature, Aug 7. An analysis of aquifer replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa shows that reduced precipitation does not always deplete groundwater reserves, challenging the idea that these reserves will decrease in response to global warming.

REPORTS

What Proportion Counts? Disaggregating Access to Safely Managed Sanitation in an Emerging Town in Tanzania. Preprints, Aug 6. This study demonstrates the possibility of using simple survey tools to collect reliable data for monitoring progress towards safely managed sanitation in the towns of global south.

Monitoring Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Measuring Progress for Girls related to Menstruation Meeting Report. Columbia University and WSSCC, 2019. Overall, findings highlight the complexity of addressing menstruation in societies around the world that have ongoing menstrual restrictions and taboos that are relevant for the design of interventions.

Running Dry: Tackling the myths about urban water and sanitation. WSUP, July 2019. WSUP has identified five myths which are stopping investors, agencies and policymakers from properly addressing the inadequate access to essential water and sanitation services in cities across Africa and South Asia.

BLOG POSTS

Reflections on a Review of Studies on the Physical and Emotional Toll of Carrying Water. Engineering for Change, Aug 1. UNC’s review includes takeaways for developing strategies to meet the challenge of water provision. The health problems associated with water carriage can only be eliminated if all households have water on premises, which is one of the parameters of ‘safely managed’ water called for under the Sustainable Development Goals. In areas where water fetching must continue, strategies should focus on reducing the distance to water sources, providing alternatives to carrying water on the head, such as wheelbarrows, and eliminating gender-based violence

For street vendors, finding water and toilets isn’t just a nuisance, it’s cutting into earnings. IIED, Aug 7. Guest blogger Carlin Carr argues that providing street vendors access to safe, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene resources benefits not just sellers, but the wider community too.

Rooted in Research, Handwashing Stations Designed to Encourage Kids to Wash Their Hands. WASHfunders, Aug 2019.

DATA SOURCES

World Resources Institute Aqueduct 3.0 Country Rankings – This dataset shows countries and provinces’ average exposure to six of Aqueduct 3.0’s water risk indicators: baseline water stress, riverine flood risk, and drought risk. Scores are also available for all industrial, agricultural, and domestic users’ average exposure to each indicator in each country and province basin.