Category Archives: East Asia & Pacific

Hazard and Environmental Considerations in Toilet Design

Live & Learn Environmental Education’s training manual for toilet location and design is now available in English and Bislama! This practical manual contains a training schedule, and step-by-step instructions for the range of issues that need to be considered when a person or family decides to improve their household toilet – including cost, management of solid waste, and potential natural and environmental hazards.

This publication was supported by the Australian government, through the Civil Society WASH Program.

You can read or download Hazard and Environmental Considerations in Toilet Design resource here.

Sanitation Sustainability Index

A new index for on-site sanitation systems is proposed and tested in the context of South Korea. It incorporates the technical, social, and economic aspects of sanitation systems, including onsite waste recycling.

Hashemi, S. Sanitation Sustainability Index: A Pilot Approach to Develop a Community-Based Indicator for Evaluating Sustainability of Sanitation SystemsSustainability 202012, 6937. DOI:10.3390/su12176937

Abstract: Evaluating the sustainability of sanitation systems is essential in achieving the sixth sustainable development goal. However, there are only limited number of available evaluation indexes, which are utilized to macroscopically determine a community’s sanitation coverage. Consequently, an index is required, which can evaluate different sanitation options for a specific community. In this paper, the sanitation sustainability index (SSI) is suggested as an indicator for evaluating the sustainability of sanitation systems. The SSI has sub-indexes that consider the technical, social, and economic aspects of the sanitation system, and all the variables are dimensionless and heavily dependent on the current state of the community where the sanitation system is going to be implemented. The applicability of the SSI was demonstrated by evaluating the implementation of two onsite sanitation systems, including one septic tank system and one resource-oriented sanitation (ROS) system in South Korea. A sensitivity analysis defined the variables that have significant impact, and the statistical distribution of the SSI for both systems was forecasted. The results showed that for South Korea, which has a profound history of utilizing human waste as fertilizer, utilizing the resource-oriented sanitation system is more sustainable, although it has a lower social sub-index score compared to the septic tank system.

Moving Towards ODF Status in Cambodia: iDE Shares Findings in New Tactic Reports

3-2-iDE-Cambodia WASH DIB-PR-07_Photo by Chhom DinatSince the beginning of iDE Cambodia’s sanitation marketing initiative in 2009, we have facilitated the sale of over 325,000 latrines, while sanitation coverage has increased from 23% to over 70% in the provinces where we work. Our latest tactic reports provide new insight into how this expansion of sanitation coverage was achieved:

Reaching Open Defecation Free Status with Grassroots Partnerships

iDE is supporting the further development of a sustainable sanitation ecosystem, to and beyond Open Defecation Free status. Our Cambodia team’s Public Private Partnership Department is facilitating deeper connections between the private sector and government, while generating, sharing, and applying market data to help communities bridge the gap to ODF. 

Reaching the Poorest with Sanitation Through Targeted Subsidies

A recent World Bank report describes several common pitfalls of the delivery of WASH subsidies worldwide, including being pervasive and poorly targeted, non-transparent, expensive for implementers, and distortionary for markets. iDE developed its targeted subsidy model to address each of these issues and help poor household sustainably participate in the Cambodian sanitation market.

Addressing Fecal Sludge Management in Rural Locations

iDE is scaling supply and sales of a new type of Alternating Dual Pit product. Equipped with lime treatment service and a device to indicate when the new pit is filling, this technology allows customers to alternate pits back and forth and empty safely composted waste indefinitely. Guiding businesses deeper into the sanitation market has been a challenge, and in order to more smoothly facilitate this process iDE has increased support for businesses on ways to retain staff, provide adequate protection and equipment, and follow a cleaner, safer installation protocol.


iDE pioneered the market-based approach in sanitation, incorporating private businesses, NGOs, and government stakeholders. In 2003, iDE launched the world’s first market-based sanitation program in Vietnam, and, since then, the model has been successfully replicated across iDE’s global portfolio and by other organizations.

Expanding Access to Improved Sanitation for the Poor: Insights from the Philippines

Expanding Access to Improved Sanitation for the Poor: Insights from the Philippines. International Finance Corporation, 2018.

The Philippines is home to around twenty five million of the 2.3 billion people worldwide who lack access to a basic sanitation service. Poor sanitation has enormous economic and human costs. ifc

The spread of water-borne diseases, for instance, results in billions of dollars in costs to the government and poor quality of life for many citizens.

IFC’s Inclusive Business team partnered with the Manila Water Foundation, which is Manila Water Company’s social responsibility arm established in 2005, to undertake a three-part study that would assess the reasons why low income urban households in the Philippines still do not have improved sanitation facilities and to test possible sanitation solutions that enable these households to improve their sanitation conditions.

The study is part of IFC’s ongoing efforts to partner with the private and public sectors to promote inclusive and sustainable growth through market based solutions for the poor and underserved.

The objectives of this study are to provide context for the sanitation conditions of low-income communities in the Philippines and to identify the opportunities and barriers to improving sanitation systems.

WSSCC Releases New Global Sanitation Fund Equality and Non-Discrimination Study

How can WASH programmes leave no one behind, as called for in the Sustaionable Development Goals? WSSCC’s new study, Scoping and Diagnosis of the Global Sanitation Fund’s Approach to Equality and Non-Discrimination, helps answer this question.

The study reveals that many people who may be considered disadvantaged have benefited positively from WSSCC’s Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)-supported programmes, particularly in open defecation free verified areas. In addition, a range of positive outcomes and impacts related to empowerment, safety, convenience, ease of use, self-esteem, health, dignity, an improved environment and income generation were reported by people who may be considered disadvantaged.

EQND-Article-Slider
Photo Credit: WSSCC

However, the study finds that GSF has not yet systematically integrated EQND throughout the programme cycle. Across all countries, there are people who have either fallen through the net or whose lives have become more difficult after being unduly pressured, or after taking out loans and selling assets to build toilets. More proactive attention is needed throughout the programme cycle to build on current successes and ensure that people are not left behind or harmed through the actions or omissions of supported programmes.

GSF is in the process of putting the study’s recommendations into practice through revised guidelines, minimum standards, practical tools and other mechanisms.

Download the full study, plus a summarized version with GSF reflections, and annexes

The Business – A blog on sanitation marketing

The Business: Knowledge and Learning on Sanitation Marketing

The Western Pacific Sanitation Marketing and Innovation Program is funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) CS-WASH Fund, implemented by Live & Learn Environmental Education in partnership with The International Water Centre (IWC), and the International Women’s Development Agency (IWDA).

Recent posts to The Business include:

E-Waste In Asia Jumps 63 Percent In Five Years

E-Waste In Asia Jumps 63 Percent In Five Years. Asian Scientists, January 17, 2017.

In just five years, Asian countries produced 12.3 million tonnes of e-waste, a weight 2.4 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza. landfill-electronic-waste-3328c9b1kashqi20iylpts

AsianScientist (Jan. 17, 2017) – The volume of discarded electronics in East and Southeast Asia jumped almost two-thirds between 2010 and 2015, and e-waste generation is growing fast in both total volume and per capita measures, according to research by the United Nations (UN) University.

The average increase in e-waste across all 12 countries and areas analyzed—Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam—was 63 percent in the five years ending in 2015 and totalled 12.3 million tonnes, a weight 2.4 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

China alone more than doubled its generation of e-waste between 2010 and 2015 to 6.7 million tonnes, up 107 percent. Using UN University’s estimation methodology, the research shows rising e-waste quantities outpacing population growth.

Read the complete article.

UNESCO funds Dunedin shadow puppet film in Indonesia about hygiene

Published on Jan 16, 2017
UNESCO along with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade are financially backing a trans-Tasman project to improve hygiene in Indonesia.

An educational film is being made in Dunedin featuring Javanese shadow puppets who tell the tale of evil bacteria.

Today some top musicians began adding the soundtrack.

 

Implementer’s Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines

Implementer’s Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines, 2015. 

This report has been prepared for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), under the Water Security for Resilient Economic Growth and Stability (Be Secure) Project, Contract No. AID-492-C-13-00015

The USAID Be Secure Project is grateful all who were involved in the creation of this Implementer’s Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines. This guide is a result of collaboration and input from a dedicated team and group of advisors.

This manual is for implementers – the person on the ground who makes things happen. You may be:

  • A municipal or city government staff person, such as the City
    or Municipal Environmental Officer (CENRO or MENRO), engineer,
    planner, or health officer tasked by the mayor with setting up a
    septage management program.
  • A water service provider, such as a water district, mandated to
    provide sanitation services to its customers.
  • A disaster preparedness specialist, responsible for managing fecal
    sludge and septage following natural or manmade disasters.
  • A private sector service provider interested in providing septage
    collection or treatment services as a business opportunity.

Sanitation projects will go down the toilet unless we ask people what they really want

Sanitation projects will go down the toilet unless we ask people what they really want. The Conversation, November 27, 2016.

Countries have a lot of work to do to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. But development projects don’t always go the way you expect.

A resettlement project in Laos provided taps and toilets as a way to improve hygiene and health outcomes for communities.

stages

Stages of water development project planning. GCI/UQ

Three years after resettlement a project team formed to address health issues found that the new brick toilet facilities were being used to store rice. The practice of “open defecation” was continuing in nearby farmland.

The community members explained that keeping rice dry and safe from animals was their highest priority. They also thought it was more hygienic for faeces to be washed away, rather than concentrated in one place such as a toilet.

How did this mismatch occur? There had been limited community participation, no awareness-raising and no sense of community ownership generated during the project planning. Getting these things right will be fundamental to achieving any of the development goals.

Read the complete article.