Category Archives: Africa

Sustainable Total Sanitation – Nigeria: Final Research Report – Institute for Fiscal Studies

Sustainable Total Sanitation – Nigeria: Final Research Report – Institute for Fiscal Studies, 2019.

Key findings and policy lessons

  • Reducing OD is intimately tied to increasing toilet ownership in Nigeria
  • CLTS improved sanitation and reduced OD in poor communities
  • Door-to-door sales agents are important
  • Targeting CLTS interventions based on community characteristics (in particular their relative wealth status) can increase policy impacts.
  • CLTS increased toilet ownership among households in poor areas without actually removing financial constraints, but these constraints remain important for households with no toilet.
  • SanMark is still a young intervention, and it is difficult to assess its effectiveness at addressing the sanitation gap at this stage.
  • Policymakers should monitor and continue to evaluate the costeffectiveness of this intervention further before considering a SanMark scale-up.
  • Policymakers should consider alternative policies that address financial constraints in both poor and richer areas, such as targeted subsidies or credit lines. These policies could complement the efforts of both CLTS and SanMark by alleviating households’ main constraints

USAID CLA Case Analysis Deep Dive: Zambia’s Community-Led Total Sanitation Program

USAID CLA Case Analysis Deep Dive: Zambia’s Community-Led Total Sanitation Program, July 2019. usaid.png

This case study focuses on Akros’ CLA-aligned approach to improving sanitation in Zambia, conducted as part of the Zambian Sanitation and Health Program (ZSHP) in partnership with UNICEF and funded by DFID from 2012 to 2018. Akros’ involvement began in 2014 with its introduction of a Mobile-to-Web (M2W) application to the CLTS process in a small number of pilot districts.

Upon successful completion of these pilots, Akros scaled the M2W application to 68 rural districts. Akros eventually incorporated into its intervention close collaboration with traditional leaders. As part of USAID’s efforts to build the evidence base for CLA and one of two Deep Dive case studies (the other concerns Global Communities’ response efforts to the Ebola outbreak in Liberia), this analysis seeks to assess evidence about whether intentional, systematic, and resourced approaches to CLA made plausible contributions to development outcomes in this case

Conclusions: This deep dive into CLA integration, implementation, and impact in CLTS efforts in Zambia yields a number of insights into the specific contributions CLA made to the response. It suggests that strategic collaborations with government officials, traditional leaders, and community members led to greater feelings of local ownership, self-reliance, and in many cases, effective behavior change.

An important dimension of this shift was rooted in CLA’s focus on social inclusion and facilitating diverse, culture-specific adaptations. Enabled by donor flexibility, and strengthened by a broad range of leadership support and participation, CLA approaches in this case incorporated innovative digital monitoring using the M2W app that led to better quality data and speedier feedback loops.

Chiefs/chieftainesses and headmen/women were also involved in ways that supported development outcomes, thereby demonstrating how traditional leaders can be constructive agents of change rather than anachronistic obstacles to development.

This case study utilizes and adapts innovative methods for assessing the contribution of CLA to intervention outcomes through process tracing and contribution analysis. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, the study provides detailed descriptions of how CLA was integrated into program activities, which may inform future program design and implementation of CLA approaches for USAID staff, implementing partners, and other development practitioners.

Identifying the last 10% of households practising open defecation in rural Tanzania

Since 2017, SNV and the Government of Tanzania have been implementing the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) programme in eight Tanzanian districts. To date, the number of households that use toilets has increased to 90%. In the period March–April 2019, SNV Tanzania undertook a household survey in the eight project districts to identify the 10% of households still practising open defecation or sharing toilets despite the concerted government and SNV sanitation interventions. The findings show the majority of the households still practising open defecation and sharing latrines in the rural districts of Tanzania are not those commonly cited by the literature and sanitation programming – the people in poverty, the elderly people, people with disabilities, and those with other specific vulnerabilities. The majority in ‘the last mile’ are: 1) the ‘defiant’ households that have the socio-economic resources to build themselves latrines but prefer to practise open defecation or share toilets; 2) the socially isolated households that do not have a financially able family member who can support them; and 3) the geographically isolated households that are far from information centres. The SNV study also revealed a relatively high percentage of households headed by single mothers and those living in difficult terrains as part of the last mile. Furthermore, the study identified opportunities to increase access to sanitation among the last mile groups. These are: 1) introduction of behaviour change re-enforcement interventions tailored to different target groups; 2) promotion of context-specific sanitation technologies; and 3) introduction of community-led ‘social exclusion’ strategies.

Read the full report. SNV, 2019. Identifying the last 10% of households practising open defecation in rural Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: SNV Tanzania. 14 p.

Nigeria needs a more effective sanitation strategy. Here are some ideas

Nigeria needs a more effective sanitation strategy. Here are some ideas., June 5, 2019. nigerianeeds

Our research shows that while community-led total sanitation is effective in Nigeria’s poorer areas, there are two main challenges.

First, community-led total sanitation had no perceivable impact in the wealthier half of our sample. There, open defecation remains widespread. And second, even in poor areas, a large number of households still engaged in open defecation after the .

This suggests that while community-led total  can be better targeted, it needs to be complemented with other policies—subsidies, micro-finance or programmes that promote private sector activity in this under-served market.

Read the complete article.

Shaping the Sanitation Market with Product Innovations in Ghana

Shaping the Sanitation Market with Product Innovations in Ghana. WASHfunders, May 2019.

Over 10 million urban Ghanaians live with unimproved sanitation services or are openly defecating causing a severe public health concern according to WHO/UNICEF. The World Bank estimates that poor sanitation and hygiene in Ghana leads to $290 million in economic losses each year. ghana

While businesses are trying to address the sanitation crisis, they face several barriers including lack of high quality and affordable product offerings for consumers, poor access to financing, and insufficient support to manage their business better and more professionally.

The SATO pan, a plastic toilet pan with a self closing flush mechanism that provides product innovation to Ghanaian consumers is being marketed to sanitation businesses by Total Family Health Organisation (TFHO) and PSI with funding from the USAID Supporting International Family Planning Organizations 2 (SIFPO2) Project. The product is manufactured by LIXIL, a global corporation that makes water and housing products.

Read the complete article.

Building partnerships for change – WSUP

Building partnerships for change. WSUP, April 2019.

Our Chair, Lord Paul Boateng, recently visited Nairobi where he highlights the challenges caused by poor access to clean water and safe sanitation. wsup-logox2

Key to addressing this challenge is partnerships – at the local and national level – including city authorities tasked with delivering city-wide services, and community leaders who are a vital link between low-income residents and utilities.

Watch the video here:

The social dynamics around shared sanitation in an informal settlement of Lusaka, Zambia

The social dynamics around shared sanitation in an informal settlement of Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, March 2019.

This study explored the social dynamics affecting collective management of shared sanitation in the Bauleni compound of Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth interviews were conducted with landlords (n = 33) and tenants (n = 33). Elinor Ostrom’s eight design principles for the management of common-pool resources was used as a framework to analyse the data. jnl

Social capital within plots was also assessed. Pit latrines were predominantly shared by landlords and tenants on residential plots. However, unwelcome non-plot members also used the latrines due to a lack of physical boundaries. Not all plot members fulfilled their cleaning responsibilities equally, thereby compromising the intended benefits for those conforming. Landlords typically decided on latrine improvements independent of tenants.

Latrines were not systematically monitored or maintained, but punishment for non-conformers was proportionate to the level of infraction. There was no system in place for conflict resolution, nor local organizations to regulate the management of sanitation. Lastly, there were few enterprises associated with peri-urban sanitation.

Social capital was moderately high, and tenants were willing to invest money into improving sanitation. The social dynamics illuminated here provide an important basis for the development of a behavioural intervention targeted towards improving urban sanitation.