Category Archives: Sanitary Facilities

New guide on female-friendly toilets by WaterAid, WSUP and Unicef

1 in 3 people across the world don’t have a decent toilet of their own. But it’s not just a question of lacking a household toilet – low availability of public and community toilets is also an issue. Where they do exist, these facilities often don’t meet the needs of women and girls, undermining women’s human rights.

The ‘Female-friendly guide‘, out in October 2018 and written by WaterAid, UNICEF and WSUP, is designed primarily for use by local authorities in towns and cities who are in charge of public and community toilets. It’s also useful for national governments, public and private service providers, NGOs, donors and civil society organisations who play a role in delivering these services.

The guide explains why toilets must be female-friendly, before detailing the essential and desirable features needed to make them so. It also suggests ways to increase gender sensitivity in town planning on sanitation.

Recommendations and practical steps have been drawn from existing literature, expert opinion and analysis of pioneering experiences from around the world.

The guide is available to download now, and will also be presented at the UNC Water and Health Conference on 1 November 2018.

Download “Female-friendly public and community toilets: a guide for planners and decision makers”.

This news item was originally published on WaterAid’s WASH Matters website.

Water Currents: Citywide Inclusive Sanitation

Water Currents: Citywide Inclusive Sanitation, October 23, 2018.

USAID is committed to exploring new ideas to achieving increased access to urban sanitation services.  The agency believes that sustainable sanitation requires that all stakeholders—from policymakers, the private sector, and utilities, to local NGOs, communities, and households—work together to achieve long-term solutions.

This issue of Water Currents includes articles, tools, and other resources related to Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS), an approach to urban sanitation that involves collaboration among many actors to ensure that everyone benefits from adequate sanitation service delivery outcomes. CWIS aims to help cities develop comprehensive approaches to sanitation improvement that encompass long-term planning, technical innovation, institutional reforms, and financial mobilization. cwis

The concept of CWIS has been gaining traction among development practitioners. At World Water Week 2018 in Stockholm, the World Bank and other partners released an official Call to Action for all stakeholders to “embrace a radical shift in urban sanitation practices deemed necessary to achieve citywide inclusive sanitation.” This issue of Currents was compiled with help from the World Bank and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Read the complete issue.

Shared Sanitation Management and the Role of Social Capital: Findings from an Urban Sanitation Intervention in Maputo, Mozambique

Shared Sanitation Management and the Role of Social Capital: Findings from an Urban Sanitation Intervention in Maputo, MozambiqueInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102222

Shared sanitation—sanitation facilities shared by multiple households—is increasingly common in rapidly growing urban areas in low-income countries. However, shared sanitation facilities are often poorly maintained, dissuading regular use and potentially increasing disease risk.

In a series of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, we explored the determinants of shared sanitation management within the context of a larger-scale health impact evaluation of an improved, shared sanitation facility in Maputo, Mozambique. ijerph-logo

We identified a range of formal management practices users developed to maintain shared sanitation facilities, and found that management strategies were associated with perceived latrine quality.

However—even within an intervention context—many users reported that there was no formal system for management of sanitation facilities at the compound level. Social capital played a critical role in the success of both formal and informal management strategies, and low social capital was associated with collective action failure.

Shared sanitation facilities should consider ways to support social capital within target communities and identify simple, replicable behavior change models that are not dependent on complex social processes.

The Scoop on Poop: How Open Defecation Free Data Led to Activity Program Pivots in Ethiopia’s Lowlands

The Scoop on Poop: How Open Defecation Free Data Led to Activity Program Pivots in Ethiopia’s Lowlands. Author(s):Nikita Salgaonkar. Organization(s):USAID/Ethiopia, AECOM, September 2018. cla

Sanitation behavior change is a notoriously complex intervention. In the harsh, remote environment of the Ethiopian lowlands, this is particularly so. Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) interventions, while successful in Ethiopia’s densely populated highland areas, have never been implemented at scale in the lowlands.

We learned that in these communities, dominated by (semi-) pastoralist groups, that the operating conditions for effective, sustained behavior change are highly variable. A Collaborating, Learning and Adapting (CLA) approach helped the program team define, pivot and re-design activities that addressed project effectiveness.

Our experience is drawn from the USAID/Ethiopia-funded Lowland Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Activity that works to accelerate access to improved WASH in three rural lowland regions: Afar, Somali, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP).

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Shared and Public Toilets : Championing Delivery Models That Work

Shared and Public Toilets : Championing Delivery Models That Work. World Bank, August 2018.

This document provides background and guidance on how to design and implement shared, communal and public sanitation facilities, with a focus on operation and management models that support long-term service provision. worldbank.jpg

The document draws on good experiences from across the globe and reflects lessons learned from design and implementation experiences – both positive and negative – in a range of countries.

The document provides guidance for service providers (whether private or public-sector entities) as well as service authorities (i.e., those who regulate/oversee the service providers) and also has a section detailing shared and public sanitation from the user perspective, including consideration of special needs of some user groups, including people with disabilities, women, the elderly, etc.

The document includes a number of decision trees that help designers and implementers understand key tasks to be undertaken and/or decisions to be made at different steps during the design and implementation process.

In addition to the main body of the document, there are a series of annexes, which include resources to further support the design and implementation of facilities. A thorough literature review was undertaken for this work and the full list of literature reviewed is included in one of the appendixes.

WASH and the Systems Approach – Water Currents, July 10, 2018

Water Currents: WASH and the Systems Approach – Water Currents, July 10, 2018.

The USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS) prepared this special issue of Water Currents focusing on systems approaches, which seek to understand the complexity, interactions, and interdependencies between actors and factors involved in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). systems

Actions are implemented based on this understanding and have the flexibility to adapt to feedback and changing conditions.

The purpose of SWS is to test new ideas, approaches, and tools to overcome barriers for improving WASH service sustainability via systems approaches. Additional information about SWS activities can be found on the SWS website.

Reports and webinars featured in this issue are from SWS and its consortium members, as well as the World Bank, USAID, and others.

2018 and 2017 Publications and Webinars 
Using Network Analysis to Understand and Strengthen WASH SystemsSWS, February 2018.

This webinar provides an introduction to network analysis and early lessons learned from analyses conducted in Ethiopia, Uganda, and Cambodia. SWS is using such analyses to better understand the complex interactions of actors in a local WASH system, with the ultimate goal of increasing the sustainability of WASH services.

Read the complete issue.

Innovations for Urban Sanitation: Adapting Community-led Approaches

Innovations for Urban Sanitation: Adapting Community-led Approaches. Practical Action, June 2018. innovations

Authors – Jamie Myers, Sue Cavill, Samuel Musyoki, Katherine Pasteur and Lucy Stevens

Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement. But how can the community mobilization techniques of CLTS be adapted to the more complex situations and transient populations in urban areas? How can landlords as well as tenants be motivated to provide and use safely managed sanitation?

Innovations for Urban Sanitation has been developed in response to calls from practitioners for practical guidance on how to mobilize communities and improve different parts of the sanitation chain in urban areas. Urban Community-Led Total Sanitation is potentially an important piece of a bigger puzzle. It offers a set of approaches, tools and tactics for practitioners to move towards safely managed sanitation services. The book provides examples of towns and cities in Africa, South Asia and South-East Asia which have used these approaches.

The approach has the potential to contribute not only to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 on water, sanitation and hygiene and SDG 11 on cities but also those concerning the reduction of inequalities and the promotion of inclusive societies. As a pro-poor development strategy, U-CLTS can mobilize the urban poor to take their own collective action and demand a response from others to provide safely managed sanitation, hygiene and water services which leave no one behind.