Category Archives: Progress on Sanitation

Collective Efficacy: Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale for Use in Public Health and Development Programmes

Collective Efficacy: Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale for Use in Public Health and Development ProgrammesInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2139. ijerph-logo

Impact evaluations of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have demonstrated lower than expected health gains, in some cases due to low uptake and sustained adoption of interventions at a community level. These findings represent common challenges for public health and development programmes relying on collective action.

One possible explanation may be low collective efficacy (CE)—perceptions regarding a group’s ability to execute actions related to a common goal. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a metric to assess factors related to CE. We conducted this research within a cluster-randomised sanitation and hygiene trial in Amhara, Ethiopia.

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to examine underlying structures of CE for men and women in rural Ethiopia. We produced three CE scales: one each for men and women that allow for examinations of gender-specific mechanisms through which CE operates, and one 26-item CE scale that can be used across genders.

All scales demonstrated high construct validity. CE factor scores were significantly higher for men than women, even among household-level male-female dyads. These CE scales will allow implementers to better design and target community-level interventions, and examine the role of CE in the effectiveness of community-based programming.

Rapid monitoring and evaluation of a community-led total sanitation program using smartphones

Rapid monitoring and evaluation of a community-led total sanitation program using smartphones. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, September 2018.

India accounts for around 50% of the world’s open defecation, and under a World Bank initiative, a rural district was selected to be the first open defecation-free (ODF) district in Punjab. Considering this, the current study aims to evaluate the application and impact of a smartphone-based instant messaging app (IMA) on the process of making Fatehgarh Sahib an ODF district. smartphone

The District Administration involved the Water Supply and Sanitation Department, Non-government Organizations, and volunteers to promote the process of a community-led total sanitation. Proper training was provided to the volunteers to spread awareness about the triggering events, health impacts of open defecation, and monetary benefits of building new individual household latrine (IHHL).

IMA was used as an aid to speed up monitoring and for the evaluation of a sanitation program. All the volunteers were connected to an IMA. This helped in providing a transparent and evidence-based field report on triggering events, follow-up activities, validation of existing IHHL, and monitoring of construction of new IHHL.

IMA is a cost-effective tool as it is already being used by the volunteers and requires no additional cost (on the user or on the project) but requires a training on ethical uses of mobile and data safety.

X-runner – finalist in the GIE Digital Pitch contest

Global Innovation Exchange – Finalist in the 2018 Digital Pitch Contest

x-runner – We provide a non-conventional sanitation solution for families who live in informal human settlements in Lima and lack access to water and safely managed sanitation.

Innovation Description

X-runner offers a sustainable sanitation solution that provides urban households with a portable dry toilet and a responsible service that removes and converts the human waste into compost, thus improving the daily lives, health and environment of thousands of individuals. xrunner

Our non-conventional sanitation solution consists of a Container Based Sanitation (CBS) system which provides homes with a dry toilet of high technology and also includes the collection and responsible treatment of the generated waste and a continuous customer service support.

Once a week we pick up the feces from every household or respective collection points and bring them to the treatment plant, where they are transformed into compost, an ecological fertilizer. This is how we avoid that the families are in direct contact with the fecal waste as well as the accumulation or inadequate management of the feces.

Our clients pay a monthly fee of 12$ for the pick-up service. But as we offer this service to low-income households, it is subsidized by grants and prize money from international foundations.

We are also a founding part of the CBS Alliance which seeks to formalize CBS as a widely accepted and endorsed approach among municipalities and regulators, to help non-conventional sanitation services to reach scale, and to achieve sustainable impact in urban areas around the world. (http://www.cbsa.global/#/)

SEI – How can sanitation policy deliver in Africa? Insights from Rwanda and Uganda

How can sanitation policy deliver in Africa? Insights from Rwanda and Uganda. Stockholm Environment Institute, August 2018.

Sanitation is currently high on the international development agenda. But for policy to be effective, basic enabling factors are required – the right institutional environment and the right governance structures – which in many countries are not yet fully in place.

It is even more important to get these basic factors right as increasing numbers of public, private, and philanthropic bodies at different levels of society become involved in promoting and providing sanitation, driven largely by global goals and international development agendas.

This growing focus on sanitation has led to top-down pressure to meet prescribed targets, which in most cases miss the complexity of context, distort service priorities, and in some cases compromise sustainability.

Based on four years of research in Rwanda and Uganda examining sanitation governance structures, the author sets out policy insights on what is needed for sanitation policy to succeed in sub-Saharan Africa.

Enabling environments for inclusive citywide sanitation: a conceptual framework

Enabling environments for inclusive citywide sanitation: a conceptual framework. WSUP Blog, September 2018.

A necessary shift is taking place: away from a narrow focus on building taps and toilets, and towards an understanding of water and sanitation as a service, whose effectiveness depends on the wider enabling environment. In simple terms, universal coverage requires services which are 1) sustainable and 2) delivered at scale – and neither is possible without strong systems. wsup.png

In Stockholm the increasing momentum towards systems change was evident – my week began with an excellent “morning of systems” convened by Agenda for Change highlighting a number of ongoing initiatives in this area  –  and served to build on July’s UN High-Level Political Forum and the associated SDG 6 synthesis report, underlining the imperative to strengthen governance, finance and capacity development if we are to achieve universal access.

So how does WSUP work to strengthen systems? From the outset, system-strengthening has been embedded in our Theory of Change: we partner with institutions and the private sector to develop effective service delivery models, and work in parallel to create the conditions for these services to be provided at the city level, including within low-income areas.

Read the complete article.

WASH and the Systems Approach – Water Currents, July 10, 2018

Water Currents: WASH and the Systems Approach – Water Currents, July 10, 2018.

The USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS) prepared this special issue of Water Currents focusing on systems approaches, which seek to understand the complexity, interactions, and interdependencies between actors and factors involved in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). systems

Actions are implemented based on this understanding and have the flexibility to adapt to feedback and changing conditions.

The purpose of SWS is to test new ideas, approaches, and tools to overcome barriers for improving WASH service sustainability via systems approaches. Additional information about SWS activities can be found on the SWS website.

Reports and webinars featured in this issue are from SWS and its consortium members, as well as the World Bank, USAID, and others.

2018 and 2017 Publications and Webinars 
Using Network Analysis to Understand and Strengthen WASH SystemsSWS, February 2018.

This webinar provides an introduction to network analysis and early lessons learned from analyses conducted in Ethiopia, Uganda, and Cambodia. SWS is using such analyses to better understand the complex interactions of actors in a local WASH system, with the ultimate goal of increasing the sustainability of WASH services.

Read the complete issue.

Swachh Bharat cities: What the parameters of cleanliness are

Swachh Bharat cities: What the parameters of cleanliness are. India Today, May 2018.

Housing and Urban Affairs Minister Hardeep Singh Puri released Swachh Survekshan 2018, the Modi government’s cleanliness and sanitation survey report.

While Jharkhand emerged as the best-performing state in terms of cleanliness, Indore in Madhya Pradesh was adjudged the cleanest city in the country, according to the survey released yesterday.

Swachh Survekshan – a survey conducted to rank cities on various sanitation and cleanliness parameters – was launched in 2016. It was conducted among 73 top cities of India.

It was followed by Swachh Survekshan 2017 that covered 434 cities.

The third round of Swachh Survekshan was conducted in January and February, covering all 4041 statutory towns in India.

Read the complete article.