Category Archives: Progress on Sanitation

Tackling slippage – Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights

Tackling slippage – Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, September 2019.

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS explores current thinking and practice on the topic of tackling slippage of open defecation free (ODF) status. clts

It looks at how slippage is defined and identified, and at different patterns of slippage that are seen after ODF is declared.

Although a considerable amount has been written on how to establish strong Community-Led Total sanitation (CLTS) programmes that prevent slippage from happening, this issue looks at how to reverse slippage that has already taken place.

From the literature, there is little documented evidence on how slippage can be reversed; evidence and guidance tend to focus on prevention. This review begins to address this gap.

Implementers are encouraged to use the proposed patterns of slippage
framework and slippage factors section to understand the type and extent of slippage experienced, then use the examples in the section on tackling slippage to identify potential slippage responses.

UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) 2019 report National systems to support drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene – Global status report 2019

UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) 2019 report: National systems to support drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene – Global status report 2019. WHO; UN Water, August 2019. who

There is widespread recognition that sustainable and effective WASH service delivery is not only determined by the state of infrastructure, but also by complex institutional, governance and financial management systems.

While a “system” may be interpreted or defined in different ways, core elements examined by the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) initiative include the extent to which countries develop and implement national policies and plans for WASH, conduct regular monitoring, regulate and take corrective action as needed, and coordinate these parallel processes with sufficient financial resources and support from strong national institutions.

GLAAS findings on the status of WASH systems are varied. Most countries have requisite components in place, but many countries responded that they have yet to operationalize and fully implement measures to support and strengthen their national WASH systems.

GLAAS findings highlight gaps and vulnerabilities in WASH systems and the need for further strengthening to assure sustainable and effective WASH service delivery in countries.

GLAAS data also allow an analysis of the extent to which, almost five years into the SDG period, countries have responded to the ambitious WASH targets established by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

With the understanding that achieving SDG 6 will require dramatic changes by countries, the GLAAS results show encouraging signs that countries have begun efforts to align with elements of the SDGs this early in the SDG era. However, the results of these efforts, and the vast majority of WASH progress in countries, are still to come.

Keep It Simple, Sanitation – experiences of app development

Keep It Simple, Sanitation – experiences of app development, by Rosie Renouf, Research Officer, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP). WASHfunders blog, July 25, 2019.

Going to the toilet hasn’t changed much over the last few millennia and the nuts and bolts of the biological side of it are unlikely to change anytime soon. What has changed over the last 20 years of so, though, is our ability to collect reams of information about where we go to the loo, what we do when we get there, and what happens afterwards. Tools like Shit Flow Diagrams give a clear picture of where human waste goes, while organisations like mWater or Gather are pioneering ways of sharing real-time data about WASH. washfunders

While the act of going to the toilet hasn’t changed, removing waste safely is getting much more complex as urbanisation pushes more people closer together. WSUP works in crowded, low-income areas that lack adequate water or sanitation, and we recognise that information about residents and the services they can access is needed as much as infrastructure – perhaps even more so.

This blog shares our experience of developing a mobile phone application for the people who work in sanitation in those cities: the business owners who own the tankers that travel across the city emptying full pit latrines and septic tanks, and the employees who drive and operate them. Our main recommendation: keep it simple!

Tech and toilets

The FSM5 conference held in Cape Town earlier this year showcased a wealth of examples of data being captured, analysed and used to improve urban sanitation services around the world. For example, Sanergy, the container-based sanitation company operating in Nairobi, explored using sensors in their Fresh Life Toilets to record use and estimate toilet fill level as a way of improving waste collection.

In two cities in Tamil Nadu, the Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme is tracking and scheduling regular desludging online, with households automatically scheduled for a vacuum tanker visit based on the date that their facility was last emptied. They have also developed an app that monitors urban local bodies’ progress in improving septage management.

The overarching aim isn’t to produce something shiny or to reinvent the wheel – it’s to help sanitation service providers do their jobs and to ensure that as many people as possible can access safe sanitation services. So the real question is: how do we not only collect data but how can it be made useful to those who need it?

Read the complete article.

USAID CLA Case Analysis Deep Dive: Zambia’s Community-Led Total Sanitation Program

USAID CLA Case Analysis Deep Dive: Zambia’s Community-Led Total Sanitation Program, July 2019. usaid.png

This case study focuses on Akros’ CLA-aligned approach to improving sanitation in Zambia, conducted as part of the Zambian Sanitation and Health Program (ZSHP) in partnership with UNICEF and funded by DFID from 2012 to 2018. Akros’ involvement began in 2014 with its introduction of a Mobile-to-Web (M2W) application to the CLTS process in a small number of pilot districts.

Upon successful completion of these pilots, Akros scaled the M2W application to 68 rural districts. Akros eventually incorporated into its intervention close collaboration with traditional leaders. As part of USAID’s efforts to build the evidence base for CLA and one of two Deep Dive case studies (the other concerns Global Communities’ response efforts to the Ebola outbreak in Liberia), this analysis seeks to assess evidence about whether intentional, systematic, and resourced approaches to CLA made plausible contributions to development outcomes in this case

Conclusions: This deep dive into CLA integration, implementation, and impact in CLTS efforts in Zambia yields a number of insights into the specific contributions CLA made to the response. It suggests that strategic collaborations with government officials, traditional leaders, and community members led to greater feelings of local ownership, self-reliance, and in many cases, effective behavior change.

An important dimension of this shift was rooted in CLA’s focus on social inclusion and facilitating diverse, culture-specific adaptations. Enabled by donor flexibility, and strengthened by a broad range of leadership support and participation, CLA approaches in this case incorporated innovative digital monitoring using the M2W app that led to better quality data and speedier feedback loops.

Chiefs/chieftainesses and headmen/women were also involved in ways that supported development outcomes, thereby demonstrating how traditional leaders can be constructive agents of change rather than anachronistic obstacles to development.

This case study utilizes and adapts innovative methods for assessing the contribution of CLA to intervention outcomes through process tracing and contribution analysis. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, the study provides detailed descriptions of how CLA was integrated into program activities, which may inform future program design and implementation of CLA approaches for USAID staff, implementing partners, and other development practitioners.

USAID Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017

Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017. USAID, June 2019.

In the “Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017,” USAID charts its progress toward achieving the goal of providing 15 million people with sustainable access to safe drinking water services and 8 million people with sustainable sanitation by 2022. usaid

In FY 2017, USAID provided $449.6 million to support water, sanitation, and hygiene activities in 41 countries. As a result, 3.6 million people gained access to improved water while 3.2 million gained access to improved sanitation.

The annual report also explores USAID’s support for partner countries on their journeys to self-reliance through many voices:

  • A community mobilizer in India marketing safe water kiosks to her neighbors
  • A homeowner in Indonesia who can now afford to build a septic tank system with funds from a community savings account
  • A mother in the Dominican Republic who has traded a wetland for the open sewer that used to run through her backyard
  • A regional water bureau manager in Ethiopia who can remotely monitor water point functionality through a data visualization platform

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities – WHO; UNICEF

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017:
Special focus on inequalities. WHO; UNICEF, June 2019.

The Joint Monitoring Programme report, Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities finds that, while significant progress has been made toward achieving universal access to basic water, sanitation and hygiene, there are huge gaps in the quality of services provided. jmp-2018

The report reveals that 1.8 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services since 2000, but there are vast inequalities in the accessibility, availability and quality of these services. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people (785 million) still lack basic services, including the 144 million who drink untreated surface water.

The data shows that 8 in 10 people living in rural areas lacked access to these services and in one in four countries with estimates for different wealth groups, coverage of basic services among the richest was at least twice as high as among the poorest.

This report presents updated national, regional and global estimates for WASH in households for the period 2000-2017. This report assesses progress in reducing inequalities in household WASH services and identifies the populations most at risk of being ‘left behind’.

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019.

This issue of Water Currents highlights recent studies and resources on fecal sludge management, container-based sanitation, shared sanitation, and other topics. As noted in USAID’s Water and Development Plan included in the U.S. Global Water Strategy, separating individuals and communities from human waste, properly treating fecal waste, and promoting key behaviors that lessen the risk of illness are critical sanitation and hygiene interventions that reduce diarrheal disease, child mortality, malnutrition, neglected tropical diseases, and other waterborne illnesses, such as cholera. sanergy.png

The first six studies are from the Creating Demand for Peri-Urban Sanitation (SanDem) project, which aims to better understand how to improve the quality of peri-urban sanitation using demand-side/behavior change approaches in Lusaka, Zambia.

We would like to thank staff from Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) for contributing content to this issue. SHARE generates evidence to improve policy and practice worldwide to achieve universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene.

Read the complete issue.