Category Archives: Progress on Sanitation

USAID CLA Case Analysis Deep Dive: Zambia’s Community-Led Total Sanitation Program

USAID CLA Case Analysis Deep Dive: Zambia’s Community-Led Total Sanitation Program, July 2019. usaid.png

This case study focuses on Akros’ CLA-aligned approach to improving sanitation in Zambia, conducted as part of the Zambian Sanitation and Health Program (ZSHP) in partnership with UNICEF and funded by DFID from 2012 to 2018. Akros’ involvement began in 2014 with its introduction of a Mobile-to-Web (M2W) application to the CLTS process in a small number of pilot districts.

Upon successful completion of these pilots, Akros scaled the M2W application to 68 rural districts. Akros eventually incorporated into its intervention close collaboration with traditional leaders. As part of USAID’s efforts to build the evidence base for CLA and one of two Deep Dive case studies (the other concerns Global Communities’ response efforts to the Ebola outbreak in Liberia), this analysis seeks to assess evidence about whether intentional, systematic, and resourced approaches to CLA made plausible contributions to development outcomes in this case

Conclusions: This deep dive into CLA integration, implementation, and impact in CLTS efforts in Zambia yields a number of insights into the specific contributions CLA made to the response. It suggests that strategic collaborations with government officials, traditional leaders, and community members led to greater feelings of local ownership, self-reliance, and in many cases, effective behavior change.

An important dimension of this shift was rooted in CLA’s focus on social inclusion and facilitating diverse, culture-specific adaptations. Enabled by donor flexibility, and strengthened by a broad range of leadership support and participation, CLA approaches in this case incorporated innovative digital monitoring using the M2W app that led to better quality data and speedier feedback loops.

Chiefs/chieftainesses and headmen/women were also involved in ways that supported development outcomes, thereby demonstrating how traditional leaders can be constructive agents of change rather than anachronistic obstacles to development.

This case study utilizes and adapts innovative methods for assessing the contribution of CLA to intervention outcomes through process tracing and contribution analysis. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, the study provides detailed descriptions of how CLA was integrated into program activities, which may inform future program design and implementation of CLA approaches for USAID staff, implementing partners, and other development practitioners.

USAID Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017

Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017. USAID, June 2019.

In the “Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017,” USAID charts its progress toward achieving the goal of providing 15 million people with sustainable access to safe drinking water services and 8 million people with sustainable sanitation by 2022. usaid

In FY 2017, USAID provided $449.6 million to support water, sanitation, and hygiene activities in 41 countries. As a result, 3.6 million people gained access to improved water while 3.2 million gained access to improved sanitation.

The annual report also explores USAID’s support for partner countries on their journeys to self-reliance through many voices:

  • A community mobilizer in India marketing safe water kiosks to her neighbors
  • A homeowner in Indonesia who can now afford to build a septic tank system with funds from a community savings account
  • A mother in the Dominican Republic who has traded a wetland for the open sewer that used to run through her backyard
  • A regional water bureau manager in Ethiopia who can remotely monitor water point functionality through a data visualization platform

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities – WHO; UNICEF

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017:
Special focus on inequalities. WHO; UNICEF, June 2019.

The Joint Monitoring Programme report, Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities finds that, while significant progress has been made toward achieving universal access to basic water, sanitation and hygiene, there are huge gaps in the quality of services provided. jmp-2018

The report reveals that 1.8 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services since 2000, but there are vast inequalities in the accessibility, availability and quality of these services. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people (785 million) still lack basic services, including the 144 million who drink untreated surface water.

The data shows that 8 in 10 people living in rural areas lacked access to these services and in one in four countries with estimates for different wealth groups, coverage of basic services among the richest was at least twice as high as among the poorest.

This report presents updated national, regional and global estimates for WASH in households for the period 2000-2017. This report assesses progress in reducing inequalities in household WASH services and identifies the populations most at risk of being ‘left behind’.

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019.

This issue of Water Currents highlights recent studies and resources on fecal sludge management, container-based sanitation, shared sanitation, and other topics. As noted in USAID’s Water and Development Plan included in the U.S. Global Water Strategy, separating individuals and communities from human waste, properly treating fecal waste, and promoting key behaviors that lessen the risk of illness are critical sanitation and hygiene interventions that reduce diarrheal disease, child mortality, malnutrition, neglected tropical diseases, and other waterborne illnesses, such as cholera. sanergy.png

The first six studies are from the Creating Demand for Peri-Urban Sanitation (SanDem) project, which aims to better understand how to improve the quality of peri-urban sanitation using demand-side/behavior change approaches in Lusaka, Zambia.

We would like to thank staff from Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) for contributing content to this issue. SHARE generates evidence to improve policy and practice worldwide to achieve universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene.

Read the complete issue.

Nigeria needs a more effective sanitation strategy. Here are some ideas

Nigeria needs a more effective sanitation strategy. Here are some ideas. Phys.org, June 5, 2019. nigerianeeds

Our research shows that while community-led total sanitation is effective in Nigeria’s poorer areas, there are two main challenges.

First, community-led total sanitation had no perceivable impact in the wealthier half of our sample. There, open defecation remains widespread. And second, even in poor areas, a large number of households still engaged in open defecation after the .

This suggests that while community-led total  can be better targeted, it needs to be complemented with other policies—subsidies, micro-finance or programmes that promote private sector activity in this under-served market.

Read the complete article.

Webinar – Designing for Sustainability: Bringing Citywide Inclusive Sanitation to Ethiopia

Webinar – Designing for Sustainability: Bringing Citywide Inclusive Sanitation to Ethiopia

The USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS) held this webinar on March 28, 2019 to discuss efforts to improve sanitation infrastructure and service delivery in the rapidly growing town of Debre Birhan in Ethiopia. SWS logo_standard

SWS is working with local actors in Debre Birhan to strengthen the local system for sanitation service delivery, along with the World Bank, which is providing substantial new sanitation infrastructure investment as part of its Ethiopia Second Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project.

The timing of the two projects provides an opportunity to work toward achieving citywide inclusive sanitation, a comprehensive approach that focuses on the entire sanitation service chain, from containment to end-use or disposal.

The presenters discuss how the two projects are collaborating to design for sustainability by addressing critical elements such as technology, finance, regulation, environment, social aspects, and institutional arrangements for improved delivery of sanitation services in Debre Birhan.

Presenters

  • Lucia Henry is a water and sanitation (WASH) professional with a background in market-based approaches and Human Centred Design (HCD) in sanitation and health, and integration of hygiene and health interventions.
  • Gulilat Birhane Eshetu has extensive experience in the Water Sector, specifically on water supply and sanitation project preparation, appraisal and implementation.

Is Africa on Track to Achieve the SDGs on Sanitation?

Is Africa on Track to Achieve the SDGs on Sanitation? A review of progress on the Ngor Declaration on Sanitation and Hygiene. Africasan5, February 2019.

This report summarises the results of the Ngor Commitment Monitoring carried out by 39 countries. The purpose of the report is to provide a baseline three years on from the Ngor Declaration on Sanitation and Hygiene. The report provides an overview of the vision and commitments themselves and the actions required to make progress.

The 10 Ngor Commitments on Sanitation and Hygiene address the areas of the enabling environment that as a whole need to be in place to drive sanitation and hygiene progress. The results of the Ngor Commitment Monitoring show that the enabling environment for sanitation and hygiene is currently uneven.

Progress in the enabling environment for leadership and coordination, and government-led monitoring systems, is not matched for commitments such as waste management, eliminating inequality, and establishing budgets. Unless addressed, the areas of the enabling environment which are lagging behind will act as a drag on the entire sector and hinder realization of the Ngor vision.