Category Archives: Emergency Sanitation

Market Based Programming for WASH in Humanitarian Situations

Market Based Programming (MBP) for WASH in Humanitarian Situations, December 2019

Case Studies/Country Reports

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response. Conflict and Health, 2018.
Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets. SWS

Strengthening market systems that provide water and hygiene items for cholera mitigation and emergency preparedness in Haiti. Waterlines, October 2018.
In the context of the cholera epidemics in Haiti, a pre-crisis market analysis (PCMA) was conducted in Artibonite to study the supply of and demand for various water- and hygiene-related items.

Pathways to professionalised community water services in a protracted crisis: a case from Juba. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
The paper depicts Oxfam South Sudan experience in professionalizing a community-based operating entity responsible for managing a water treatment plant in Juba, through WASH Market-based Programming. It describes how this was achieved by supporting the development of a business implementation plan and provision of tailored institutional support.

Refugees: The Most in Need of Zakat Funds. UNHCR, 2019.
Our cash assistance program is an innovative way to ensure that 100% of Zakat donations go to people most in need, to spend on what they need most, instead of providing them with truckloads of unwanted supplies.

Overviews

WASH Market-Based Programming in Emergencies: Overview. Oxfam, 2018.
This overview, and the WASH and Markets in Crisis series linked to it, describes the impacts of crises on market systems, and introduces the benefits of market-based programming.

Using pre-crisis market analysis to strengthen emergency preparedness and resilience of WASH systems. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
This paper describes Oxfam’s experiences using pre-crisis market analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe in order to support market-based programming to strengthen the resilience of market systems and prepare for reoccurring emergencies

Briefing note 2: Types of Market-Based Programming to Strengthen Emergency Responses. Oxfam, 2018.
This briefing note describes different types of WASH market-based programming used in pre-crisis, emergency or post-crisis contexts, giving examples from Oxfam’s experiences in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Zimbabwe.

Building evidence to inform the effective use of cash in emergency sanitation and hygiene programming. Save the Children; ODI, 2018.
An analysis of five case studies of utilization of cash/voucher assistance are presented and analyzed in the attempt of building evidence on their utilization in emergency WASH Sanitation and HP programming. Findings and recommendations are provided on coordination, situation and response analysis, program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Working with WASH market systems to improve emergency response and resilience in urban areas. HPN, 2018.
With funding from USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), Oxfam set out to promote market-based responses to emergencies using pre-crisis market mapping and analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe, focusing primarily in urban areas.

Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts. Journal of Environmental Management, June 2018. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action.

Cash and Markets In the WASH Sector: A global WASH Cluster position paper. GWC, 2016. The proposed benefits of working through existing market systems include improvements to speed, efficiency and effectiveness of programming and increased beneficiary dignity and choice.

WASH and Cash and Voucher Assistance. Cash Learning Partnership.
In recent years the use of conditional Cash and Voucher Assistance to achieve WASH outcomes has steadily grown. CVA has been used to increase access to drinking water through water vendors or small shops, or through the use of kits for treating and storing water. Cash for work has been used for the repair and recovery of the piped water network.

Other Studies/Reports

Mobilising cash and voucher assistance programmes: The case for mobile money. GSMA, 2019.
Although the fastest means of disbursement at the immediate onset of a crisis is to deliver physical cash, digital options offer greater benefits longer term.

What does gender-sensitive cash and voucher assistance look like? CARE, 2019.
The study aimed at understanding the: Extent to which women, men, boys, and girls have been involved in the design of CVA and the implications of this involvement. Potential for CVA to foster positive and sustainable gender roles and relations that contribute to gender equity.

New financing partnerships for humanitarian impact. ODI, 2019.
Innovative finance applies to using market-based investments – which generate a financial return – rather than grants.

Cost-Effectiveness in Humanitarian Work: Cash-Based Programming. IDS, 2018.
The evidence reviewed also points to the limits of CBR; cash interventions are unable to tackle systemic issues around quality of service provision, education and largely also health (albeit they can help cover costs of dealing with small ailments, or channel some resources into the WASH sector

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A humanitarian WASH update – November 20, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Please contactTravis Yates, travis.yates@tufts.edu, if you have any questions about the GWC Resource Center. Also below are news from Elrha, USAID, studies from Lebanon and Bangladesh and some interesting blog posts from UNHCR, CGIAR and others. emergencies

The Global WASH Cluster is maintaining a resource center focused on humanitarian WASH with links to relevant journal articles, toolkits, and NGO learnings (https://wrc.washcluster.net/). There are nearly 200 cataloged documents covering a variety of WASH themes. A sample of documents includes:

NEWS

WASH EVIDENCE INNOVATION CHALLENGE: DEVELOP ROBUST EVIDENCE ON HUMANITARIAN WASH INNOVATIONS. Elrha, November 2019.
We are looking for robust research studies that generate practical, comparative evidence around HIF-funded WASH innovations. The evidence will be useful for both the innovations themselves and the humanitarian sector as a whole. These studies need to be collaborations between WASH innovators, researchers and humanitarian agencies.

USAID Announces Nearly $56 Million in Additional Humanitarian Assistance to Contain Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. USAID, November 2019.
With this funding, the United States is continuing to provide life-saving assistance through on-the-ground partners, including activities to prevent and control infections in health facilities, enhanced surveillance for the disease, training for health-care workers, community-engagement efforts, the promotion of safe and dignified burials, and food to support people and communities affected by Ebola.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Refugees, water balance, and water stress: Lessons learned from Lebanon. Ambio, November 2019.
Results of our spatial analysis show that while the impact of refugees and indirectly conflicts’ on water stress is of paramount importance and it cannot be neglected, opportunities exist for the international community to intervene and provide for water supply and network efficiency improvements, which can relieve the induced stress.

Occurrence of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms in drinking water at source and household point-of-use in Rohingya camps, Bangladesh. Gut Pathogens, November 2019. Despite the limitations and challenges faced, this is the first study of water quality assessment in the Rohingya camps involving almost half of the total drinking water sources.

A Synthesis Report Analyzing Menstrual Hygiene Management Within a Humanitarian Crisis. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, November 2019.
The lack of universal policy surrounding  the  implementation of  MHM  in a crisis has implications not only for women’s health and dignity, but also for a country’s progress towards  the related SDG targets.

Beyond mapping: a case for geospatial analytics in humanitarian health. Conflict and Health, November 2019.
This paper explores a variety of historical and contemporary geospatial applications in the public health and humanitarian fields and argues for greater integration of geospatial analysis into humanitarian health research and programming.

BLOGS

Groundwater can prevent drought emergencies in the Horn of Africa. Here’s how. The Conversation, November 2019.
The idea is that drought-driven humanitarian emergencies can be prevented if groundwater is reliably made available at strategic locations.

The Growing Threat of Water Wars. Project Syndicate, November 2019.
Today, hundreds of international water agreements are coming under pressure.

Bringing toilets into the home boosts refugees’ health and security. UNHCR, November 2019.
Burundian refugees in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo receive cash to construct houses and toilets, improving access to better sanitation.

11,000 Steps to Water: How data visualization can impact American perceptions of refugees. UNHCR, November 2019.
One of the prototypes developed was an activity tracking app. This app helps Americans see how their daily activity compares to the daily activity of refugees.

New project offers circular economy solutions for refugee and host communities in East Africa. CGIAR, October 2019.
‘We have developed solutions like pellets from fecal sludge for agriculture and safe wastewater reuse for urban agriculture,’ said the Ethiopian economist. ‘These RRR solutions and other innovations from low-space farming can be adapted to work in refugee settlements.’

REPORTS

Safer water, better health: 2019 update. WHO, 2019.
The report also presents selected WASH interventions that have been shown to improve health and complements them with available cost–effectiveness analyses.

Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action. Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 2019.
The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings. Chapter 18 is on WASH issues.

Water, sanitation and hygiene in arid and semi-arid lands: What can we learn from the DREAM ASAL Conference 2019?

Water, sanitation and hygiene in arid and semi-arid lands: What can we learn from the DREAM ASAL Conference 2019? CLTS Knowledge Hub, November 2019.

From 29th September to 3rd October the DREAM ASAL (Development of Resilience Empowering Alternative Measures for Ethiopian Lowlands) Conference 2019 took place in the Ethiopian city of Samara, capital of the Afar region. asal.jpg

The five-day conference reunited key stakeholders from government, INGOs and CSOs not only from Ethiopia but also from Kenya, Pakistan, Rwanda and Somaliland.

It was organised by the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and facilitated by the GIZ- Strengthening Drought Resilience (SDR) programme.

The DREAM Conference had two major aims: 1) discuss ways to control, eradicate and make beneficial use of invasive species in the arid and semi-arid lowlands (ASAL), and 2) gather innovative and tested methodologies and technologies in the area of community planning, land rehabilitation, livelihood development, rangeland development, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) including disaster risk management, in the lowland areas of the horn of Africa.

Read the complete article.

An Update on Fecal Sludge Management in Humanitarian Situations, October 24, 2019

Please contact us if you have other studies and resources to add to this listing.

An Update on Fecal Sludge Management in Humanitarian Situations, October 24, 2019

Journal articles

A Traditional Closed-Loop Sanitation System in a Chronic Emergency: A Qualitative Study from Afghanistan. Water, February 2019. The use of closed-loop sanitation systems (CLSS), or reuse-oriented sanitation systems, has increased in recent years, and such systems have been successfully implemented in many parts of the world. However, no research has explored Traditional CLSS (T-CLSS) for a long-term humanitarian situation. This study explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of T-CLSS in peri-urban and rural contexts in three different provinces in Afghanistan.

Experimental Determination of Moisture Sorption Isotherm of Fecal Sludge. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts, February 2019. Studies on dewatering performances of FS are limited. The physical water distribution of such matrices is not fully understood, limiting the progress in the development and optimization of FS dewatering technologies. The objective of this study is to present a gravimetric method intended to assess the dewatering characteristics and associated modelling of FS through moisture sorption isotherms.

Assessment of Recommendation for the Containment and Disinfection of Human Excreta in Cholera Treatment Centers. Water, January 2019. These findings suggest that the use of 30% hydrated lime suspensions or 2% chlorine solutions may offer a simple public health protection measure for the containment, safe handling, and disinfection of human excreta during humanitarian emergencies.

Development of a Field Laboratory for Monitoring of Fecal-Sludge Treatment Plants. Water, August 2018. In urban humanitarian-aid operations, safe treatment of fecal sludge is highly important. While currently field-deployable fecal-sludge treatment plants are being developed, field-ready analytical equipment for process-control and public health monitoring is missing. Within the Microbial Sludge Quality project, a field laboratory was developed. SWS

Reports

Human Waste-to-fuel Briquettes as a Sanitation and Energy Solution for Refugee Camps and Informal Urban Settlements. IWMI, 2018. Chapter 2 in the report Recovering Bioenergy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gender Dimensions, Lessons and Challenges, the chapter discusses the human waste-to-charcoal briquettes innovation: (i) Provision of sanitation service through the installation of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in dwellings and (ii) The waste-to-fuel briquettes innovation.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Innovation Catalogue. Elrha, 2019. The Humanitarian WASH Innovation Catalogue is the first of its kind. It offers a unique overview of some of the most promising new solutions in WASH and is designed to help practitioners decide which innovations could help them solve their most pressing problems.

Decision Making and the Use of Guidance on Sanitation Systems and Faecal Sludge Management in the First Phase of Rapid-Onset Emergencies. Elrha Humanitarian Innovation FundBORDA, 2018. One of the report’s recommendations is that existing resources that were highlighted in this research should utilize the findings and conclusions to strengthen their FSM components, particularly the Sphere Guidance and the WASH Cluster.

Rethinking Faecal Sludge Management in Emergency Settings: Decision Support Tools and Smart Technology Applications for Emergency Sanitation. CRC Press, Jul 24, 2019. Order info and summary: This study focused on the development of a smart emergency toilet termed the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) smart toilet to address the limitation in technical options. This toilet is based on the eSOS concept that takes into account the entire sanitation chain.

Others

Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies – The Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies provides a structured and user-friendly manual and planning guide for sanitation solutions in emergency settings. It supports and enables decision making by providing the necessary framework for developing a sanitation system design.

WHO Sanitation system fact sheets. These fact sheets provide guidance on some of the most frequently-used sanitation systems. Each describes the applicability of the system in different contexts; design, operation and maintenance considerations; and mechanisms for protecting public health at each step of the sanitation service chain.

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation. World Bank, 2019. This report builds on four case studies (SOIL – Haiti, x-runner – Peru, Clean Team – Ghana, Sanergy – Kenya) to assess the role CBS can play in a portfolio of solutions for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS) services. The authors conclude that CBS approaches should be part of the CWIS portfolio of solutions, especially for poor urban populations for whom alternative on-site or sewer-based sanitation services might not be appropriate.

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low-income settlements. Waterlines, July 2019. The potential viability of CBS services has been assessed for urban informal settlements in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The viability of CBS services in these settlements was found to be most influenced by the current availability of basic sanitation facilities, the unfamiliarity with paying for sanitation services, and the universally adopted practice of anal cleansing with water.

Sanivation: Providing a range of employment opportunities for refugees. IFC, April 2019. Chapter 3 in Private Sector & Refugees Pathways to Scale.

Compendium of Innovative Sanitation Technologies. Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP), December 2018. The Compendium presents various innovations in technologies both on field and in laboratories. These technologies span across the faecal sludge value chain comprising user interface, containment, collection, transportation, treatment, and reuse. It provides reader of the Compendium with various options for implementation at the ground level contextual to demographic and geo-climatic situations.

Websites

Operational Collaborative Tool for Ongoing Practices in Urgent Sanitation​ (OCTOPUS) – Fecal sludge disposal and treatment is a significant problem in rapid onset emergencies. Low consideration is given to this issue when deploying emergency responses, and while general guidance and resources exist, improper decisions are often made.  To address this issue, Solidarités International has created the first collaborative platform called OCTOPUS. Intended for sanitation practitioners,

 

Emergency WASH biweekly update – October 15, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

This biweekly update includes an upcoming webinar and recent reports on water trucking and other topics. Also included is a brief bibliography on mobile technologies in humanitarian WASH settings. Please let us know if you have other studies and resources to add to the bibliography.

WEBINARS

November 13, 2019 Period Posse Presents | Changing the Norm: Mainstreaming Female Friendly Toilets | Speakers: David Clatworthy, IRC: Developing a female-friendly toilet toolkit for emergencies; Lea Jimera Acallar, Danish Red Cross: Innovative toilet designs in Bangladesh; Annie Msosa, WaterAid: Female-friendly public and community toilets: A Guide wateraid

REPORTS/BRIEFS

Briefing note on water trucking in refugee settings. UNHCR, 2018. This UNHCR technical guideline has been prepared for anyone involved in planning and implementing water trucking in refugee contexts including UNHCR staff, WASH organizations, water trucking contractors, governments and individuals.

Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale. HWISE, 2019. The HWISE Scale has many uses: identify populations vulnerable to water insecurity; understand causes and consequences of water insecurity; track trends in household water insecurity over time; monitor and evaluate the impact of water policies and programs.

USAID OFDA DRC Ebola Fact Sheets – September 2019.

Humanitarian Investing – Mobilizing Capital to Overcome Fragility. World Economic Forum, 2019. This paper offers an articulation of the humanitarian investing landscape and its main actors and guiding principles, building upon ongoing work that promotes new models and multistakeholder dialog to complement, not replace, existing humanitarian response mechanisms.

Global humanitarian assistance report 2019. Development Initiatives, 2019. In 2018, an estimated 206.4 million people living in 81 countries were deemed in need of humanitarian assistance. A large portion of these people continued to be concentrated in a small number of countries: six countries accounted for 80.6 million people in need.

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Emergency WASH biweekly update – October 2, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Please let us know if you have upcoming events or recent studies and reports to feature in the next biweekly update.

REPORTS

USAID Yemen Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Fact Sheet, September 2019. USAID is implementing programming that addresses the underlying issues of limited access to safe water and sanitation. USAID’s Comprehensive WASH Support (CWS) program aims to improve access to safe and adequate water supply and basic sanitation infrastructure for households, hospitals, and schools. wateraid

Denial, Delay, Diversion: Tackling Access Challenges in an Evolving Humanitarian Landscape. CSIS, September 2019. To ensure the ability of aid to reach those who need it most and to uphold the principles of international humanitarian law, the United States should elevate humanitarian access as a foreign policy priority and work to reconcile tensions between critical national security measures and the growing needs of vulnerable populations in fragile, conflict-affected states.

Jordan: WASH Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey in Za’atari camp. REACH, July 2019. This assessment found that the integration of the water network has been successful as the vast majority of households are fully connected to both the water and waste water networks. Households have an increased understanding of the importance of water conservation practices, and a significantly greater proportion reported to practice such methods.

“Like a Drop of Water on a Fire” INADEQUATE INVESTMENT IN DURABLE SOLUTIONS FOR DROUGHT IDPS IN ETHIOPIA. Refugees International, September 2019. In the Somali region of eastern Ethiopia, drought internally displaced persons (IDPs)—people who have been forced to relocate because of the effects of severe drought—are now a forgotten population.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

WHO guidance for refugees in camps: systematic review. BMJ Open, August 2019. This is the first systematic analysis of how well WHO guidelines cover the specific clinical health needs of people in refugee camps.

Factors associated with practice of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, in press. This study was conducted to examine WASH practices and associated risk factors among the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. The present study comprised 350 participants with data collected via a semi structured questionnaire. Most respondents (84%) did not have a good knowledge concerning WASH.

Acute Water-Scarcity Monitoring for Africa. Water, September 2019. We developed a monthly monitoring system that computes annual water availability per capita based on hydrologic data from the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and gridded population data fromWorldPop.

BLOGS/ARTICLES

Averting a Cholera Epidemic in the Wake of Dual Natural Disasters. USAID Global Waters, September 2019. When Tropical Cyclone Idai made landfall March 15, 2019, it pummeled Mozambique’s fourth-largest city Beira and three neighboring provinces, leaving only 10 percent of the port city intact.

Faircap Open Water Filter. Elrha, September 2019. A low cost, small, portable antibacterial water filter that can be screwed into standard plastic bottles and can provide clean drinking water by filtering out sediment and bacteria to reduce gastrointestinal disease during emergency relief situations, refugee camps and poor urban and rural areas.

How handwashing behaviour change programmes can save lives in an emergency. By: Claudia Codsi, Private Sector Partnerships, Oxfam, August 2019. We created a program called ‘Mum’s Magic Hands’ drawing on emotional motivators, nudges and triggers to drive sustained behavior change. The results had a positive effect on mothers’ handwashing practice, increasing both awareness and practice of handwashing with soap.

150,000 refugee women and girls to receive transformative menstrual health management solution. Sanitation Updates, September 2019. The UN refugee Agency UNHCR and AFRIpads have just begun the largest rollout of reusable sanitary pad distribution and Menstrual Health Management (MHM) sensitization of refugees in Uganda.

Recent Emergency WASH research | Upcoming webinars and training events

Publications/Research

Water under fire volume 1: Emergencies, development and peace in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. UNICEF, August 2019. The report presents practical and evidence-based water and sanitation solutions that can be replicated and scaled up. It highlights the need for leadership to bring about immediate action to accelerate water and sanitation service delivery in fragile and conflict-affected contexts; prevent water-related tensions between groups and political entities; and ensure the right to water and sanitation for every child. emergencies

WELLSPRING: Source Water Resilience and Climate Adaptation. Nature Conservancy, August 2019. As the pace of climate change quickens, Source Water Protection is now also becoming a critical component to ensuring resilience. Climate change presents a new range of threats, drivers, and uncertainties in how we interact with freshwater ecosystems, but recently developed approaches to cope with climate impacts will ensure that source waters can survive — and thrive — into the future.

WHAT IF THE WATER WE USE AT NUTRITION CLINICS HAS THE POTENTIAL TO HARM? Elrha blog, 2019.  What the experience in Ethiopia showed us is that the silence around what constitutes “good enough” water for reconstituting therapeutic products can have potentially fatal consequences for the most vulnerable.

Young social entrepreneurs making waves with water-saving manual washing machine in IDP camps in Iraq. The Washing Machine Project, August 2019. In March 2019, Navjot Sawhney and Alex Hughes, both engineers and co-founders of the fledgling social enterprise The Washing Machine Project conducted research into clothes-washing habits across four IDP camps in Northern Iraq.

The Current Ebola Outbreak and the U.S. Role: An Explainer. KFF, August 2019. The major question for the U.S. government going forward is whether or not it will change its approach and engagement in the DRC in light of the PHEIC declaration and the lack of progress in interrupting transmission of the virus so far.

Urban humanitarian response. ODI, 2019. Chapter 4.4 discusses WASH issues. Included is an interesting section on Cash and WASH. As with other sectors, the use of cash in relation to WASH is increasingly resonating in urban emergencies.

HUMANITARIAN WASH PRESENTATIONS AT WORLD WATER WEEK 2019

A call to action for handwashing behavior change in emergencies – Resources: Resources include links to Mum’s Magic Hands Website and Mum’s Magic Hands: A field guide for rapid implementation of handwashing promotion in emergencies.

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