Category Archives: IYS Themes

Emergency WASH Update, November 15, 2018

The next biweekly update will contain recent studies and resources on Fecal Sludge Management so please send any studies or reports that should be featured.

ANNOUNCEMENTS

Research Assistant: CLEAR and Wash’em – London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: We are seeking to appoint a Research Assistant to support research on hygiene and sanitation in the Environmental Health Group. The successful applicant will have a MSc in a relevant field; experience in conducting research in low and middle-income countries or in humanitarian contexts. Closing Date: Thursday 22 November 2018.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Individual and Household Risk Factors for Symptomatic Cholera Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Infect Dis, November 2018.
We identified potential risk factors for symptomatic cholera infection including environmental characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and intrinsic patient factors. Ultimately, a combination of interventional approaches targeting various groups with risk-adapted intensities may prove to be the optimal strategy for cholera control.

Global Cholera Epidemiology: Opportunities to Reduce the Burden of Cholera by 2030. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 2018.
While safe drinking water and advanced sanitation systems have made the Global North cholera-free for decades, the disease still affects 47 countries across the globe resulting in an estimated 2.86 million cases and 95,000 deaths per year worldwide.

Household Water Treatment and Cholera Control. J Infect Dis. 2018, Sept 2018.
Overall, a moderate quality of evidence suggests that HWT interventions reduce the burden of disease in cholera outbreaks and the risk of disease transmission. Appropriate training for users and community health worker follow-up are necessary for use. Barriers to uptake include taste and odor concerns, and facilitators include prior exposure, ease of use, and links to preexisting development programming.

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Understanding the Problems of India’s Sanitation Workers

Understanding the Problems of India’s Sanitation Workers. The Wire, November 13, 2018.

Despite increasing focus by the government and programmes such as the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, unsafe sanitation work, loosely captured under the catch-all phrase manual scavenging, still exists in India. There are five million people employed in sanitation work of some sort in India with about two million of them working in ‘high risk’ conditions.

Here is the first article in a series which introduces the situation of sanitation workers in the country, their different personas, the challenges they face, and the solutions that are essential to improving this situation.

india

Credit: Dalberg Advisors

The last few years have been the golden age for sanitation in India. What started out as the Total Sanitation Campaign in the 1990s morphed into the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan under the UPA Government and then transformed into the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan with full gusto driven by the prime minister’s special attention.

This translated directly into increased budgets, a mission-mode implementation across the country and by official estimates, 80 million additional toilets getting constructed. Now, over 89% of the country’s population has access to a household toilet, compared to 40% in 2014.

Read the complete article.

Water Currents: Citywide Inclusive Sanitation

Water Currents: Citywide Inclusive Sanitation – October 23, 2018.

USAID is committed to exploring new ideas to achieving increased access to urban sanitation services.  The agency believes that sustainable sanitation requires that all stakeholders—from policymakers, the private sector, and utilities, to local NGOs, communities, and households—work together to achieve long-term solutions.

This issue of Water Currents includes articles, tools, and other resources related to Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS), an approach to urban sanitation that involves collaboration among many actors to ensure that everyone benefits from adequate sanitation service delivery outcomes. cwis

CWIS aims to help cities develop comprehensive approaches to sanitation improvement that encompass long-term planning, technical innovation, institutional reforms, and financial mobilization.

The concept of CWIS has been gaining traction among development practitioners. At World Water Week 2018 in Stockholm, the World Bank and other partners released an official Call to Action for all stakeholders to “embrace a radical shift in urban sanitation practices deemed necessary to achieve citywide inclusive sanitation.” This issue of Currents was compiled with help from the World Bank and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Read the complete issue.

Bill Gates – Why the world deserves a better toilet

Why the world deserves a better toilet. GatesNotes, November 5, 2018.

I just traveled halfway around the world to look at a toilet.

If you’re a long-time reader of TGN, this shouldn’t come as a surprise. There are few things I love talking about more. Sanitation is one of the most important issues we work on. I even drank water made from human feces a couple years ago. gates

That’s why I’m so excited to visit Beijing, China this week for the Reinvented Toilet Expo, where some of the most high-tech toilets in the world will be on display.

The toilets at the expo aren’t just fascinating gadgets—they have the potential to save millions of lives. More than half of the world’s population uses unsafe sanitation facilities. Even in places where people have access to toilets or pit latrines, their waste isn’t disposed of safely. The pathogens from the waste find their way into the local water supply and makes people sick.

Read the complete article.

Facilitating handwashing where water is scarce – EAWAG

Facilitating handwashing where water is scarce – EAWAG, October 22, 2018.

Even though the water we’ve used for washing our hands is barely contaminated, it usually disappears down the drain, never to be used again. A newly developed system allows handwashing water to be recycled, thus not only saving water, but also helping to prevent infectious diseases in developing countries. eawag

Every year, according to WHO figures, around four million people die as a result of diarrhoeal diseases or respiratory infections. Particularly in developing countries, these deaths are largely attributable to poor hygiene – the problem would be significantly alleviated by regular handwashing.

But how can this be achieved in places where people lack access to safe water, or piped water is unavailable? This issue is being addressed by a group of environmental engineers led by ETH Professor Eberhard Morgenroth (Head of Process Engineering at Eawag), carrying out research as part of the Blue Diversion AUTARKY project.

They have now developed a grid-free treatment system allowing greywater – relatively clean wastewater from showering, bathing or handwashing – to be repeatedly recycled.

As Morgenroth points out, while commercial systems are already available which enable greywater to be treated on-site for use in toilet flushing, the recycled water does not meet the required quality standards to be used for other purposes.

Read the complete article.

Water access and sanitation shape birth outcomes and earning potential

Water access and sanitation shape birth outcomes and earning potential. Mongabay, November 8, 2018. mongabay.png

  • Spending more time per day fetching water increased Indian women’s risk of delivering a low birth weight baby, a study has said.
  • Open defecation and using a shared latrine within a woman’s building or compound were also associated with higher odds of low birth weight and pre-term births, respectively, compared to having a private household toilet.
  • The researchers believe that improving water, sanitation and health access and/or reducing gender-based harassment could reduce these adverse birth outcomes.
  • Another study pointed out that enhanced access to a reliable and proximate water supply reduced the time spent by women in collecting water and the proportion of hard labour performed by women. In addition, the thus freed may be spent on other income generating activities.

Read the complete article.

USAID WASHPaLS Webinar Explores Barriers to Effective Sanitation Enterprises

USAID WASHPaLS Webinar Explores Barriers to Effective Sanitation Enterprises

The provision of sustainable sanitation for all is one of the world’s most important development priorities, yet 4.5 billion people lack access to a safe toilet. market-based-sanitation-blog.png

Past efforts to provide greater sanitation access, such as direct government provision and full, blanket subsidies for toilets, have proven to be ineffective or unsustainable in many developing countries, prompting some to focus on market-based sanitation (MBS) as an alternative.

However, market-based approaches have proven difficult to scale up.

Subhash Chennuri explores some of the barriers to scaling up MBS in “Designing Effective Sanitation Enterprises,” a recent webinar based on findings from a desk review of MBS development interventions from USAID’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS).

The review provides a new, more specific framework for understanding some of these barriers to scaling market-based sanitation.

Read the complete article.