Category Archives: IYS Themes

Bruce Gordon and Oliver Subasinghe on the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report

In the latest USAID Global Waters Radio podcast, hear the World Health Organization’s Bruce Gordon, one of the creators of the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report, share key takeaways from this year’s data, collected from more than 100 countries. podcast

As we move closer to 2030, how are countries doing in their pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals for water and sanitation?

Click below to give a listen to this important progress report, and feel free to share with interested colleagues.

Link to the podcast.

 

Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice – WHO/UNICEF position paper

Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice – WHO/UNICEF position paper, November 2019. Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

The WHO/UNICEF position paper summarizes the studies, contextualizes the findings within the wider body of evidence and distills the implications for future investments. The paper is accompanied by a recorded interview with the heads of WASH for WHO and UNICEF and the lead author of a consensus statement from leading researchers.

An excerpt – What are the implications for WASH programming?

The findings of WASH Benefits and SHINE are not a reason to do less on WASH. Conversely, the historical significance of WASH in disease control, the strong conceptual basis for WASH (Box 2) and the need for WASH to reduce the potential for outbreaks in addition to breaking endemic transmission all indicate that the WASH sector collectively needs to do more and better to reach the ambitious targets of the SDGs.

The findings also highlight blind spots in typical WASH programming – particularly the role of animal waste and fecal contamination of food during irrigation and food preparation that are often overlooked in WASH programme design.

Many have called for transformative WASH In response to the studies but with some ambiguity around what is meant. While the consensus is that this implies interventions that lead to a comprehensively clean environment (Box 1), the path to this result is not universally agreed.

Impact of Early Life Exposure to Environments with Unimproved Sanitation on Education Outcomes: Evidence from Bangladesh

Impact of Early Life Exposure to Environments with Unimproved Sanitation on Education Outcomes: Evidence from Bangladesh. World Bank, November 2019.

Despite Bangladesh’s notable progress toward the eradication of open defecation, the country still faces severe deficits in the availability of improved sanitation. bank

This paper analyzes the impact of exposure to unimproved sanitation early in childhood on primary school enrollment status, using pseudo-panel data for children ages six to nine years in Bangladesh.

The results indicate that unimproved sanitation has a negative and significant impact on primary school enrollment. A child’s early exposure to unimproved sanitation decreases the likelihood of being enrolled in primary school by eight to ten percentage points on average compared with a child with access to improved sanitation.

The effect is particularly strong — a difference of 8 to 10 percentage points — for children ages six to seven. It is also strong in rural areas. The results are statistically robust to errors due to potential omitted variable bias.

A humanitarian WASH update – November 20, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Please contactTravis Yates, travis.yates@tufts.edu, if you have any questions about the GWC Resource Center. Also below are news from Elrha, USAID, studies from Lebanon and Bangladesh and some interesting blog posts from UNHCR, CGIAR and others. emergencies

The Global WASH Cluster is maintaining a resource center focused on humanitarian WASH with links to relevant journal articles, toolkits, and NGO learnings (https://wrc.washcluster.net/). There are nearly 200 cataloged documents covering a variety of WASH themes. A sample of documents includes:

NEWS

WASH EVIDENCE INNOVATION CHALLENGE: DEVELOP ROBUST EVIDENCE ON HUMANITARIAN WASH INNOVATIONS. Elrha, November 2019.
We are looking for robust research studies that generate practical, comparative evidence around HIF-funded WASH innovations. The evidence will be useful for both the innovations themselves and the humanitarian sector as a whole. These studies need to be collaborations between WASH innovators, researchers and humanitarian agencies.

USAID Announces Nearly $56 Million in Additional Humanitarian Assistance to Contain Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. USAID, November 2019.
With this funding, the United States is continuing to provide life-saving assistance through on-the-ground partners, including activities to prevent and control infections in health facilities, enhanced surveillance for the disease, training for health-care workers, community-engagement efforts, the promotion of safe and dignified burials, and food to support people and communities affected by Ebola.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Refugees, water balance, and water stress: Lessons learned from Lebanon. Ambio, November 2019.
Results of our spatial analysis show that while the impact of refugees and indirectly conflicts’ on water stress is of paramount importance and it cannot be neglected, opportunities exist for the international community to intervene and provide for water supply and network efficiency improvements, which can relieve the induced stress.

Occurrence of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms in drinking water at source and household point-of-use in Rohingya camps, Bangladesh. Gut Pathogens, November 2019. Despite the limitations and challenges faced, this is the first study of water quality assessment in the Rohingya camps involving almost half of the total drinking water sources.

A Synthesis Report Analyzing Menstrual Hygiene Management Within a Humanitarian Crisis. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, November 2019.
The lack of universal policy surrounding  the  implementation of  MHM  in a crisis has implications not only for women’s health and dignity, but also for a country’s progress towards  the related SDG targets.

Beyond mapping: a case for geospatial analytics in humanitarian health. Conflict and Health, November 2019.
This paper explores a variety of historical and contemporary geospatial applications in the public health and humanitarian fields and argues for greater integration of geospatial analysis into humanitarian health research and programming.

BLOGS

Groundwater can prevent drought emergencies in the Horn of Africa. Here’s how. The Conversation, November 2019.
The idea is that drought-driven humanitarian emergencies can be prevented if groundwater is reliably made available at strategic locations.

The Growing Threat of Water Wars. Project Syndicate, November 2019.
Today, hundreds of international water agreements are coming under pressure.

Bringing toilets into the home boosts refugees’ health and security. UNHCR, November 2019.
Burundian refugees in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo receive cash to construct houses and toilets, improving access to better sanitation.

11,000 Steps to Water: How data visualization can impact American perceptions of refugees. UNHCR, November 2019.
One of the prototypes developed was an activity tracking app. This app helps Americans see how their daily activity compares to the daily activity of refugees.

New project offers circular economy solutions for refugee and host communities in East Africa. CGIAR, October 2019.
‘We have developed solutions like pellets from fecal sludge for agriculture and safe wastewater reuse for urban agriculture,’ said the Ethiopian economist. ‘These RRR solutions and other innovations from low-space farming can be adapted to work in refugee settlements.’

REPORTS

Safer water, better health: 2019 update. WHO, 2019.
The report also presents selected WASH interventions that have been shown to improve health and complements them with available cost–effectiveness analyses.

Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action. Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 2019.
The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings. Chapter 18 is on WASH issues.

Global Waters Stories – November 2019: Celebrate World Toilet Day

Global Waters Stories – November 2019: Celebrate World Toilet Day

World Toilet Day 2019: These Countries are Making Sanitation Gains with USAID’s Help
As we celebrate the transformative public health impacts of improved sanitation this November 19, USAID takes you from Ethiopia to Indonesia in this photo essay to showcase how innovative thinking, government action, and private sector participation have helped generate some of the greatest recent sanitation success stories around the world. globalwaters

Strengthening Urban Indonesia’s Water and Sanitation Systems – USAID is working with Indonesia’s government and private sector to tackle the challenge of untreated waste through the regulation of sludge removal and provision of financing for septic tank construction.

Podcast: 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water Report – Global Waters Radio presents the WHO’s Bruce Gordon and USAID’s Oliver Subasinghe discussing this report’s key takeaways and how its data help inform the Agency’s approach to WASH investments

Read the complete issue.

What Makes Ghanaians More Likely to Stop Open Defecation and Build Latrines?

What Makes Ghanaians More Likely to Stop Open Defecation and Build Latrines? Global Comunities, November 2019.

This brief focuses on the findings from studies in Ghana. This knowledge product is developed by Global Communities in order to make the findings and recommendations of the full report more accessible and actionable by the Government of Ghana Ministry of Sanitation and Water Resources (MSWR) as well as by other development partners working in rural sanitation in Ghana. global

The Government of Ghana MSWR has basic sanitation guidelines to achieve 100% open defecation-free (ODF) status and equitable and adequate access to sanitation and hygiene for all by 2030, with special emphasis on the poor and vulnerable.

This knowledge product is part of the USAID-funded WASH for Health program to provide sustainable access to dignified, safe, and improved water supply and sanitation, and to educate people on the knowledge and behaviors necessary to live a healthy lifestyle. In particular, the WASH for Health program targets rural communities where these services are needed the most and helps achieve the goals of the MSWR in Ghana.

Key Findings

  • Factors that determine the success of CLTS interventions are attendance rate of participants during the triggering event, the number of community leaders participating in the triggering event, whether participants believed they would receive rewards like installation of water wells and materials for toilets, and the number of follow-up visits provided by facilitators weeks after triggering.
  • Households that socially identify strongly with their communities are more likely to construct latrines after CLTS interventions.
  • Combining CLTS with other behavior change models did not significantly increase intervention effects.

Health, safety and dignity of sanitation workers – WaterAid

Health, safety and dignity of sanitation workers. WaterAid, November 2019.

Sanitation workers provide an invaluable public service, vital to our daily lives and the environment. Yet they often work in conditions that expose them to the worst consequences of poor sanitation – debilitating infections, injuries, social stigma and even death – every day. wateraid.jpg

We have joined forces with the World Bank, the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization to shed light on this neglected issue. Our report is the most extensive global exploration of the topic to date.

In it we analyse the problems sanitation workers face – focusing on those emptying pits and tanks and maintaining sewers – and explore good practices around the world. We suggest areas of action to ensure sanitation workers: have their rights recognized; are supported to organize as a labour force; and have their working conditions improved and progressively formalized.

Read the complete article.