Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

USAID Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017

Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017. USAID, June 2019.

In the “Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities FY 2017,” USAID charts its progress toward achieving the goal of providing 15 million people with sustainable access to safe drinking water services and 8 million people with sustainable sanitation by 2022. usaid

In FY 2017, USAID provided $449.6 million to support water, sanitation, and hygiene activities in 41 countries. As a result, 3.6 million people gained access to improved water while 3.2 million gained access to improved sanitation.

The annual report also explores USAID’s support for partner countries on their journeys to self-reliance through many voices:

  • A community mobilizer in India marketing safe water kiosks to her neighbors
  • A homeowner in Indonesia who can now afford to build a septic tank system with funds from a community savings account
  • A mother in the Dominican Republic who has traded a wetland for the open sewer that used to run through her backyard
  • A regional water bureau manager in Ethiopia who can remotely monitor water point functionality through a data visualization platform

UNICEF guides on menstrual hygiene management |WASH Benefits update

REPORTS

Guide to menstrual hygiene materials. UNICEF, May 2019. The guide is meant to familiarize UNICEF staff members with the key characteristics and requirements for the most common menstrual hygiene materials: menstrual cloths, reusable pads, disposable pads, menstrual cups and tampons. For each menstrual material, the environmental, health, and financial aspects are highlighted in individual tables – along with considerations of availability, user experience, and standards and regulations. Technical specifications are provided for each material. The guide concludes with a summary table of these key attributes. mhm

Guidance on Menstrual Health and Hygiene. UNICEF, March 2019. This guidance was developed for UNICEF WASH, Education, Health, and Gender specialists or focal points in country offices who are working with their partners to develop programs related to menstrual health and hygiene (MHH).

Composting and Dry Desiccating Toilets (Latrines). Global Water Pathogen Project, June 2019. Scientists involved with the Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP) have compiled the most up to date information on Composting and Dry Desiccating Toilets (Latrines) for the purpose of providing a key reference point in the development of quantitative guidance for sanitation practices worldwide.

Mainstreaming Energy Efficiency Investments in Urban Water and Wastewater Utilities. World Bank, June 2019. This guidance note presents an overview of the benefits of improving energy efficiency in urban water and wastewater utilities.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

The WASH Benefits and SHINE Trials. Interpretation of Findings on Linear Growth and Diarrhoea and Implications for Policy: Perspective of the Investigative Teams (P10-136-19). Current Developments in Nutrition, June 2019. We recently completed 3 efficacy trials (Bangladesh, Kenya, Zimbabwe) testing the independent and combined effects of improved complementary feeding (CF) and intensive household water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on child diarrhea and length-for-age-Z-score (LAZ) at 18 to 24 mo. Intervention uptake was high. In all three trials: CF increased LAZ but WASH had no effect on LAZ. WASH reduced diarrhea in Bangladesh but not in Kenya or Zimbabwe. We present a synthesis of trial findings and their implications.

Design of a parallel cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia: Andilaye study protocol. BMC Public Health, June 21, 2019. The purpose of this protocol is to detail the rationale and design of a cluster-randomized trial evaluating the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia.

BLOG POSTS

Solutions for Resilience and Peace Building Across the World. Engineering for Change, May 30, 2019. About 90 percent of USAID’s water priority countries are conflict-affected or fragile. In 2018, over 60 million people around the world were affected by more than 280 natural disasters. Effective water resource management is complex even in times of peace and prosperity. In a time of crisis, whether war or natural disaster or drought, it means the difference between building resilience or compounding tragedy.

Have you heard of impact bonds? Sustainable Cities, June 2019.  Impact bonds are a form of public-private partnership that rewards investors for successfully delivering impact. Investors are rewarded if providers meet agreed-upon outcomes but lose their investment if the providers underachieve or fail.

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities – WHO; UNICEF

Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017:
Special focus on inequalities. WHO; UNICEF, June 2019.

The Joint Monitoring Programme report, Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities finds that, while significant progress has been made toward achieving universal access to basic water, sanitation and hygiene, there are huge gaps in the quality of services provided. jmp-2018

The report reveals that 1.8 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services since 2000, but there are vast inequalities in the accessibility, availability and quality of these services. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people (785 million) still lack basic services, including the 144 million who drink untreated surface water.

The data shows that 8 in 10 people living in rural areas lacked access to these services and in one in four countries with estimates for different wealth groups, coverage of basic services among the richest was at least twice as high as among the poorest.

This report presents updated national, regional and global estimates for WASH in households for the period 2000-2017. This report assesses progress in reducing inequalities in household WASH services and identifies the populations most at risk of being ‘left behind’.

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019

Peri-Urban Sanitation – Water Currents, June 11, 2019.

This issue of Water Currents highlights recent studies and resources on fecal sludge management, container-based sanitation, shared sanitation, and other topics. As noted in USAID’s Water and Development Plan included in the U.S. Global Water Strategy, separating individuals and communities from human waste, properly treating fecal waste, and promoting key behaviors that lessen the risk of illness are critical sanitation and hygiene interventions that reduce diarrheal disease, child mortality, malnutrition, neglected tropical diseases, and other waterborne illnesses, such as cholera. sanergy.png

The first six studies are from the Creating Demand for Peri-Urban Sanitation (SanDem) project, which aims to better understand how to improve the quality of peri-urban sanitation using demand-side/behavior change approaches in Lusaka, Zambia.

We would like to thank staff from Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) for contributing content to this issue. SHARE generates evidence to improve policy and practice worldwide to achieve universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene.

Read the complete issue.

Emergency WASH update – recent webinars and research

If you and your organization would be interested in collaborating with the USAID CKM project on organizing an Emergency WASH-related webinar or Water Currents enewsletter, please let us know. emergencies

These links give examples of CKM webinars and the enewsletter issues. Also, please share any recent studies, reports or upcoming events by your organization that can be featured in the Emergency WASH updates.

WEBINARS

Water as a Tool for Resilience in Times of Crisis. In this webinar, the Environmental Change and Security Program, USAID’s Sustainable Water Partnership, and Winrock International hold a discussion on where the challenges lie and what practitioners and policymakers can do to bolster effective water management for the world’s most vulnerable communities.

REPORTS

Rapid Review of Disability and Older Age Inclusion in Humanitarian WASH Interventions. Elrha, May 2019. The information presented in this review intended to provide an overview of the level of disability and older age inclusion in WASH interventions in humanitarian action. The review highlighted important gaps in available literature on inclusive WASH interventions in humanitarian contexts.

Rethinking Faecal Sludge Management in Emergency Settings: Decision Support Tools and Smart Technology Applications for Emergency Sanitation. CRC Press / Balkema – Taylor & Francis Group, June 2019. This study focused on the development of a smart emergency toilet termed the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) smart toilet to address the limitation in technical options. This toilet is based on the eSOS concept that takes into account the entire sanitation chain, which is the required processing of human excreta from toilet until safe disposal (downstream process).

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Barriers and Facilitators to Chlorine Tablet Distribution and Use in Emergencies: A Qualitative Assessment. Water, May 29, 2019. We found: (1) chlorine tablets are regarded as one of the most effective water treatment methods and are often considered appropriate in emergency response, (2) dosing confusion and taste and odor rejection are perceived as the main problems limiting effectiveness, and (3) the primary solutions suggested for these problems were social and behavioral.

The Impact of Various Promotional Activities on Ebola Prevention Behaviors and Psychosocial Factors Predicting Ebola Prevention Behaviors in the Gambia Evaluation of Ebola Prevention Promotions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, June 2019. Three promotional activities were significantly associated with psychosocial factors of handwashing and, thus, with increased handwashing behavior: the home visit, posters, and info sheets. Health behavior change programs should rely on evidence to target the right psychosocial factors and to maximize their effects on prevention behaviors, especially in emergency contexts.

Evaluation of an Emergency Bulk Chlorination Project Targeting Drinking Water Vendors in Cholera-Affected Wards of Dar es Salaam and Morogoro, Tanzania. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, June 2019. The results from this evaluation indicate that bulk chlorination targeting medium- to large-volume water suppliers such as water vendors could be a feasible mechanism to address chlorination gaps at the community level during emergencies and disease outbreaks.

Drinking water quality and human dimensions of cholera patients to inform evidence-based prevention investment in Karonga District, Malawi. Water Supply, June 2019. The cost of a reactive response to cholera outbreaks puts a burden on Malawi, providing an opportunity for investment in innovative and localized preventive strategies to control and eliminate the risk of cholera while acknowledging social and cultural norms.

OTHER STUDIES/RESOURCES

WASH in Urban Emergencies (Online Course), summer 2019 by RedR UK – The WASH in Urban Emergencies course will equip experienced WASH humanitarians with the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively work in the early stages of an urban emergency, and to identify the unique challenges of working in urban environments.

Climate Fragility Risks (CFR) In Development Sectors: Six Principles for Managing Synergies and Trade-Offs. United Nations University, May 2019. This document proposes six principles to manage CFRs in key development sectors, namely (1) implement interdisciplinary approach, (2) focus on vulnerable groups, (3) promote preventive and adaptive measures, (4) enhance inclusive and participatory governance, (5) allocate and manage finances for CFR effectively and efficiently, and (6) build resilient and green infrastructure.

Reducing Protracted Internal Displacement: A Snapshot of Successful Humanitarian-Development Initiatives. OCHA, June 2019.  While each situation is unique and requires tailored solutions, this paper offers valuable insights on how to best combine short- and long-term initiatives of international organizations, local partners and governments, while taking into account the needs of IDPs and host communities as well as market forces.

USAID WASH in the News

Links to the news articles below can by found in the USAID in the News section of the Globalwaters.org website. Be sure to check out the website for updates on USAID WASH-related activities and publications: usaidnews

  • Zimbabwe – Solar Garden Changes Lives in Rural Gwanda
  • Vietnam – USAID Launches Water Supply Systems in Thanh Hoa Province
  • As Global Population Grows, This Global Collaboration Works To Ensure Adequate Food And Water
  • Leveraging Satellites and the Internet of Things, SweetSense Facilitates Water Service Access in Kenya and Water Resource Management in California
  • Water Security in an Uncertain Future: Enhancing Water Resources Management and Planning by Reducing Climate and Weather Related Risks
  • USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) – Meet Our Experts: Trevor White

Read more news articles.

 

 

 

Nigeria needs a more effective sanitation strategy. Here are some ideas

Nigeria needs a more effective sanitation strategy. Here are some ideas. Phys.org, June 5, 2019. nigerianeeds

Our research shows that while community-led total sanitation is effective in Nigeria’s poorer areas, there are two main challenges.

First, community-led total sanitation had no perceivable impact in the wealthier half of our sample. There, open defecation remains widespread. And second, even in poor areas, a large number of households still engaged in open defecation after the .

This suggests that while community-led total  can be better targeted, it needs to be complemented with other policies—subsidies, micro-finance or programmes that promote private sector activity in this under-served market.

Read the complete article.