Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

Menstrual hygiene management in schools: midway progress update on the “MHM in Ten” 2014–2024 global agenda

Menstrual hygiene management in schools: midway progress update on the “MHM in Ten” 2014–2024 global agenda. Health Research Policy and Systems, January 2021.

Progress has been made in recent years to bring attention to the challenges faced by school-aged girls around managing menstruation in educational settings that lack adequate physical environments and social support in low- and middle-income countries.

To enable more synergistic and sustained progress on addressing menstruation-related needs while in school, an effort was undertaken in 2014 to map out a vision, priorities, and a ten-year agenda for transforming girls’ experiences, referred to as Menstrual Hygiene Management in Ten (MHM in Ten).

The overarching vision is that girls have the information, support, and enabling school environment for managing menstruation with dignity, safety and comfort by 2024. This requires improved research evidence and translation for impactful national level policies.

As 2019 marked the midway point, we assessed progress made on the five key priorities, and remaining work to be done, through global outreach to the growing network of academics, non-governmental organizations, advocates, social entrepreneurs, United Nations agencies, donors, and national governments.

This paper delineates the key insights to inform and support the growing MHM commitment globally to maximize progress to reach our vision by 2024. Corresponding to the five priorities, we found that (priority 1) the evidence base for MHM in schools has strengthened considerably, (priority 2) global guidelines for MHM in schools have yet to be created, and (priority 3) numerous evidence-based advocacy platforms have emerged to support MHM efforts.

We also identified (priority 4) a growing engagement, responsibility, and ownership of MHM in schools among governments globally, and that although MHM is beginning to be integrated into country-level education systems (priority 5), resources are lacking.

Overall, progress is being made against identified priorities. We provide recommendations for advancing the MHM in Ten agenda. This includes continued building of the evidence, and expanding the number of countries with national level policies and the requisite funding and capacity to truly transform schools for all students and teachers who menstruate.

Biweekly WASH research updates – January 4, 2021

This biweekly update contains the latest updates to Globalwaters.org as well as recent studies and reports handwashing, sanitation, WASH in schools, WASH in healthcare facilities, water supply issues and COVID-19 and WASH.

Updates to Globalwaters.org

Environmental Health

Using Feedback to Improve Accountability in Global Environmental Health and Engineering. Environ. Sci. Technol., December 2020. 

Handwashing/Hygiene

An assessment of availability of handwashing facilities in households from four East African countries. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. In press, 2020. 

Sanitation

Philippines: Can Subsidized Microloans Increase Toilet Ownership and Use for Poor Households? World Bank, November 2020. 

How Much Will Safe Sanitation for All Cost? Evidence from Five Cities. Environ. Sci. Technol., December 2020. (Abstract only for non-subscribers)

Cost effectiveness of community led total sanitation in Ethiopia and Ghana. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, March 2021. 

Water, Sanitation and the Risk of Chronic Conditions among Older Persons in Ghana: Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 2. African Population and Health Research Center, December 2020.

Modification of Major Contributors Responsible for Latrine Malodor on Exposure to Hypochlorous Acid: The Potential for Simultaneously Impacting Odor and Infection Hazards to Encourage Latrine Use. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, December 2020. 

Water Supply/Reuse

Evaluating self-reported measures and alternatives to monitor access to drinking water: A case study in Malawi. Science of The Total Environment, January 2021.

25 Years of Partnership with Karnataka: Evolving Model for Sustainable Urban Water Service Delivery. Asian Development Bank, December 2020. 

WASH for Women and Girls Fact Sheet. USAID, December 2020.

WASH for Women and Girls Fact Sheet. USAID, December 2020.

Through Water for the World, USAID increases access to sustainable water and sanitation services, promotes key hygiene behaviors, and enhances the effective management of water resources in developing countries.

USAID also elevates the status of women and girls to empower them as decision-makers and professionals in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector so they can lead the transformation of water and sanitation services in their own communities and countries.

Flush Away 2020: A 5-Day Game, December 27-31, 2020

From December 27 to 31, 2020, FLUSH, The Loo Tours, and The POOP Project have teamed up with Reel Paper to encourage you to let this year go. Any game participant has a chance to win an awesome raffle prize. See below for more details.

Each day will have a theme with some directions that we’ll share in videos around 6am EST / 11am GMT. You’ll have 24 hours to submit your results on Twitter and/or Instagram. Here are some hints about the 5 days of games:

  • Day 1: Toilet Paper Challenge (arts & crafts)
  • Day 2: Thank You (Sanitation Workers) Challenge (gratitude)
  • Day 3: Toilet/WC Upgrade Challenge (design)
  • Day 4: Bristol Bake-Off Challenge (baking)
  • Day 5: Final Flush Challenge (therapy)

We are judging submissions based on creativity and fun! We encourage people to think outside the box (so long as it’s tasteful).

Eligibility

Participants are eligible to participate from anywhere in the world, as long as they are over the ages of 18 years, or have at least one member who is over 18 years old.

The Grant Prize of a year’s supply of Reel bamboo toilet paper is only available for participants in the US, but we have participation prizes for people elsewhere, as well! Family members of any company and organization hosting and running this game are welcome to participate but are exempt from winning the Grand Prize.

Submission Rules

  • Social Media: Participants must post videos & pictures on Instagram (stories and/or feed posts) and/or Twitter.
  • Hashtags: Submissions must include the hashtags #FlushAway2020 and another hashtag with the name of their team to be considered eligible for inclusion.
  • One Team, One Account: Participant accounts submitting their posts has to remain the same throughout the game to make sure we can keep track of who is who! Feel free to team up with others, just note that there should be just one account for the submissions and the Grand Prize will be sent to the address of the account holder.
  • Tag Us: Oh! You should also tag us on your submissions:
  • Twitter@flush_wash | @LondonLooTours | @poop_project | @reelpaperco
  • Instagram@flushllc | @londonlootours | @poop_project | @reelpaper
  • Deadlines: Submissions for each day must be shared by 5am EST / 10am GMT the following day, sent with the same IG account. Make sure to have a decent internet connection to submit on time!
  • Raffle Prize: Teams participating will receive up to two raffle tickets per day they participate, one for submitting and one for demonstrating extra creativity or effort. The raffle tickets will be given to the account holder that submitted the posts. Submit at least two times and you already win a prize – free admission into one of the team’s events. Submit all five days and you can attend two of the team’s events for free. The grand prize will be raffled off at the end to one winner. The more you submit, the more chances you have to win!

Content Rules

  • Prove It’s You: A body part of a real, living person must be included in the post to prove you really completed the challenge.
  • Freedom to Share: Submissions are agreeing that the hosting organizations can download and use their videos and pictures for promotional use in the future (i.e., a recap video, etc.).
  • Keep it Tasteful: Pictures or videos that include real poo or sensitive materials (aka genitalia) are automatically disqualified and will be reported as abuse on social media.

Have any questions or need some more information? Feel free to email us at kim@flushwash.org.

USAID Market-Based Sanitation Study in Burkina Faso and Niger

ViMPlus is part of USAID’s Resilience in the Sahel Enhanced II (RISE) initiative, which supports vulnerable communities in Burkina Faso and Niger to effectively prepare for and manage recurrent crises and pursue sustainable pathways out of poverty. 

Victory against malnutritionplus (ViMPlus): WASH markets assessment report. USAID, 2020. This report was prepared by Ali Dissa and Zakari Bouraima contracted by Save the Children under the Victory Against Malnutrition Plus (ViMPlus) Activity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
METHODOLOGY
RAPID DESK REVIEW
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS
INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS
HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS
DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS
RESULTS
RESULTS FROM THE RAPID DESK REVIEW
GLOBAL LESSONS LEARNED FROM MARKET BASED SANITATION (MBS)
IDENTIFICATION OF OTHER MBS ACTIVITIES IN BURKINA FASO
RESULTS FROM THE DATA COLLECTION
RESULTS FROM THE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY
CURRENT HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER PRACTICES
TYPES OF LATRINES USED BY HOUSEHOLDS
HOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING AROUND WASH PRODUCTS
BARRIERS AND FINANCING OF LATRINES .
KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW RESULTS
MAPPING OF RISK AND MITIGATION MEASURES
DISCUSSION
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Photo essay on waste pickers – USAID’s Municipal Waste Recycling Program

Each year, eight million metric tons of plastic pour into the world’s oceans caused largely by ineffective solid waste management systems of rapidly urbanizing coastal cities in developing countries. The situation would be even more dire without the efforts of millions of waste pickers, many of whom operate in the informal sector.

They collect and recycle materials that would otherwise go into landfills and illegal dumpsites or leak into the environment. “Despite their absence from most urban-development plans, waste pickers remain some of the most effective, affordable, and necessary waste managers and recyclers on earth, protecting both land and sea,” according to Taylor Cass Talbott, Reducing Waste in Coastal Cities Project Officer with Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing & Organizing.

Despite their contributions, waste pickers often find themselves marginalized, stigmatized, and unappreciated, laboring in difficult, unsafe conditions and without adequate protections. As part of our broader efforts to combat ocean plastics pollution, USAID is supporting waste pickers across Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.

USAID’s Municipal Waste Recycling Program is providing training and equipping waste collectors, strengthening Independent Waste Collector organizations, and supporting their advocacy efforts.

Link to Photo Essay.

How WASH Programming has Adapted to the COVID-19 Pandemic – Sanitation Learning Hub

How WASH Programming has Adapted to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sanitation Learning Hub Rapid Action Learning Papers, December 2020.

Since first appearing at the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread at a pace and scale not seen before. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic.

A rapid response was called for, and actors across the globe worked quickly to develop sets of preventative measures to contain the disease. One mode of transmission identified early on in the crisis was via surfaces and objects (fomites).

To combat this, hand hygiene was put forward as a key preventative measure and heralded as ‘the first line of defence against the disease’. What followed was an unprecedented global focus on handwashing with soap.

Health messages on how germs spread, the critical times at which hands should be washed, and methods for correct handwashing were shared (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2020). Political leaders around the world promoted handwashing and urged people to adopt the practice to protect against the coronavirus.

The primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 have affected people and industries in a variety of different ways. For the WASH sector, the centring of handwashing in the pandemic response has led to a sudden spike in hygiene activity.

This SLH Rapid Topic Review takes stock of some of the cross-cutting challenges the sector has been facing during this period and explores the adaptations that have been made in response. It then looks forwards, thinking through what lies ahead for the sector, and considers the learning priorities for the next steps.

Read the complete article/download the report.

An Emergency WASH Network Update, December 11, 2020

This update contains links to recently published articles and reports and upcoming events and courses. The next update will focus on WASH & neglected tropical diseases in humanitarian situations so let us know of recent research, studies, resources, etc. 

EVENTS

ELRHA – Innovation Challenge: Facilitating the Adoption of Humanitarian WASH Innovations – The ambition of this first-of-its-kind Adoption Challenge is to enable humanitarian organizations to adopt promising new solutions, adapt them to new settings and evaluate their effectiveness. Application deadline, January 25, 2021.

Creating Hope in Conflict: a Humanitarian Grand Challenge 2020 Request for Proposals in Numbers, December 2, 2020 – This year, the majority of the solutions (32%) put forward were in the area of Health Supplies and Services; followed by Life-Saving Information (26%); Safe Water and Sanitation (22%); and Energy (20%). Creating Hope in Conflict: A Humanitarian Grand Challenge is a partnership of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.K. Foreign, Commonwealth & Development office (FCDO), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, with support from Grand Challenges Canada.

COURSES/TRAINING

IHE Delft – Online Course on Governance in Humanitarian Contexts, May – September 2021: The course aims to critically analyse the humanitarian architecture, the different humanitarian contexts, and decision-making for WASH through a multi-level governance approach.

REPORTS/VIDEOS

USAID Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda. USAID, November 2020. After undertaking a comprehensive and consultative process to identify and prioritize evidence gaps associated with its WASH programming approaches, USAID is launching the first-ever Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda to coordinate, integrate, and inspire research and learning in the WASH sector.

Water under fire volume 2: Strengthening sector capacity for a predictable, quality humanitarian response. UNICEF, November 2020. This second volume of the Water Under Fire report series is dedicated to the WASH sector’s capacity to deliver a predictable, quality humanitarian WASH response, and provides a change agenda and road map towards strengthening this capacity.

Kenya – Using drones to share COVID-19 information with vulnerable populations. COVID-19 Hygiene Hub, November 2020. Project staff decided to pilot the use of drones in humanitarian responses and felt that this was an interesting case study to generate new learnings.

Evaluating two novel handwashing hardware and software solutions in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Oxfam, November 2020. The Promotion and Practice Handwashing Kit (PPHWK), a robust, user-friendly handwashing station, and Mum’s Magic Hands (MMH), a creative hygiene promotion strategy, were evaluated.

State of the World’s Sanitation. UNICEF, November 2020. This report includes a chapter on Sanitation for forcibly displaced persons.

Announcing Release of USAID Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda

Dear Colleagues and Partners, 

I am pleased to announce that USAID has released its first-ever “Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda.” A newly published Globalwaters.org blog frames the key evidence gaps and questions included in the document. 

Evidence is critical to effective and efficient water security, sanitation, and hygiene development programming at USAID, among our partner governments, donors, and implementing partners. The research agenda identifies 27 broad research questions that are critical to improving implementation of programs that contribute to the goal and associated Development Results of the USAID Water and Development Plan within the U.S. Government Global Water Strategy. The identification of these questions represents the culmination of an extensive process of exploring the evidence base associated with current approaches to water security, sanitation, and hygiene development programming, and of prioritizing evidence gaps through consultations across USAID and with our partners

The Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda is a key contribution to the Agency’s “evidence cycle.” By looking to the past (through our Ex-Post Evaluation Series) to current evidence (through our Water and Development Technical Series) and to the future (through this agenda), USAID is seeking to coalesce partners and the sector around approaches that last, and to measure those results in meaningful ways (see our Water and Development Indicator Handbook).

The Water for the World Implementation Research Agenda will guide investments in implementation research across USAID’s water security, sanitation, and hygiene portfolio. We look forward to working with you on expanding the evidence base to improve the impact and sustainability of our work on water security, sanitation, and hygiene for the world’s poorest and most vulnerable.

Read the Agenda

Jeff Goldberg
Director, Center for Water Security, Sanitation, and Hygiene
Bureau for Resilience and Food Security
USAID

Biweekly WASH research updates – December 8, 2020

Updates to Globalwaters.org

Blog – USAID Launches Water for the World Research Agenda – The agenda identifies 27 broad research questions that are critical to closing the lingering evidence gaps directly related to accomplishing all four USAID Water and Development Plan Development Results.

Blog – Less is More: Reducing Water Loss to Improve Resilience in Iraq – USAID and Coca-Cola through the Water and Development Alliance (WADA) have partnered with the Soran Water Directorate to improve water management practices and increase water availability by reducing water loss.

Blog – Emergency WASH Network’s Q & A With Albert Reichert – My name is Albert Reichert and I am one of the Bureau of Humanitarian Assistance’s WASH Technical Advisors. I am an engineer by training, specializing in groundwater and surface water flows. I was based in East Africa for the past 10 years and cover East and parts of Southern Africa for BHA WASH.

Upcoming Webinar – WASH Collaboration: Two Projects, One Result – The presenters will discuss how the two projects collaborated successfully to advance WASH development in Ethiopia, and how other projects might increase the sustainability and impact of infrastructure-focused support through partnership and learning. Join the webinar on Wednesday, December 9.

Publication – Water Currents: Inclusive WASH – December 3, 2020 – This issue contains the latest studies and resources detailing inclusive WASH as it relates to gender, disabled groups, the elderly, incarcerated populations, and other at-risk groups.

 COVID-19 and WASH

Preparing for Outbreaks – Implications for Resilient Water Utility Operations and Services. Sustainable Cities and Society, January 2021. The purpose of this article is to discuss the economic and public health impact of outbreaks on water and wastewater utilities and utility workforce and to present case studies demonstrating utilities’ preparedness and response to COVID-19.

Institutionalising Wastewater Surveillance Systems to Minimise the Impact of COVID-19: Cases of Indonesia, Japan and Viet Nam. Water, Science and Technology, November 2020. This mini review describes the current status and challenges regarding institutionalization of wastewater surveillance systems against COVID-19.

Open Defecation and Squat Toilets, an Overlooked Risk of Fecal transmission of COVID-19 and Other Pathogens in Developing Communities. Environmental Chemistry Letters, November 2020. The authors illustrate the potential routes of transmission of COVID-19 and other fecal pathogens via human feces in communities practicing open defecation. Here, poor hand hygiene, contaminated shoes and objects, mechanical vectors, and outdoor human activities can all contribute to fecal transmission

HYGIENE/HANDWASHING ISSUES

Exploring the Use and Appeal of Playpens to Protect Infants from Exposure to Animals, Animal Feces, and Dirt in Rural Ethiopia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, November 2020. Results support further exploration of the potential benefits and commercial viability of scaling up use of playpens in rural, agricultural households as part of a comprehensive approach to child development and women’s empowerment.

Can Social Motivators Improve Handwashing Behavior among Children? Evidence from a Cluster Randomized Trial of a School Hygiene Intervention in the Philippines. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, November 2020. The program had limited impact on the motivators targeted by the program, suggesting that the small improvements in handwashing may have been driven by increases in the availability of soap.

SANITATION ISSUES

Faecal Sludge Management in Africa. Socio-Economic Aspects, Human and Environmental Health. UNEP; IWMI, November 2020. This report explores current trends of fecal sludge management and how poor management practices worsen human and environmental health across Africa.

Comment: A Call for Global Monitoring of WASH in Wet Markets. Lancet Planetary Health, October 2020. Using monitoring data to target wet markets for hygiene and sanitation infrastructure upgrades, while protecting these marketplaces as vibrant, affordable, community spaces should be the global public health community’s next major focus.

Toilet Alarms: A Novel Application of Latrine Sensors and Machine Learning for Optimizing Sanitation Services in Informal Settlements. Development Engineering, August 2020. This study used cellular-connected motion sensors and machine learning to dynamically predict when daily latrine servicing could be skipped with a low risk of overflow.

What it Takes to Build a Sanitation Market: USAID Transform WASH and the Plastic Toilet Slab in Ethiopia. IRC WASH blog, November 2020. Market facilitation is what USAID Transform WASH is all about, but it takes time, patience, and tenacity. Nothing exemplifies this more than nearly three-years of experience introducing the plastic toilet slab to the Ethiopian market. 

WATER ISSUES

Striving for Borehole Drilling Professionalism in Africa: A Review of a 16-Year Initiative through the Rural Water Supply Network from 2004 to 2020. Water, November 2020. The initiative has raised the profile of drilling professionalism, provided a wealth of materials and inspired others to take action. Thousands of stakeholders have improved their knowledge.

Evidence-Based Chlorination Targets for Household Water Safety in Humanitarian Settings: Recommendations from a Multi-Site Study in Refugee Camps in South Sudan, Jordan, and Rwanda. Water Research, February 2021. Sphere chlorination targets may not ensure household water safety in refugee camps. This is most concerning in camps in hot settings where WASH conditions are poor. The authors investigated post-distribution chlorine decay in multiple refugee camps globally.

Data, Data Everywhere: New World Bank Water Data Portal. World Bank, October 2020. With support from the Global Water Security & Sanitation Partnership (GWSP), the World Bank has just launched the World Bank Water Data Portal. For the first time ever, a curated list of water data from the World Bank and other sources and institutions is now available in one place.