Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

WASH in Emergencies – Water Currents, September 19, 2018

Emergency water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) is a critical component of USAID’s humanitarian assistance for vulnerable populations, who are much more susceptible to diseases related to inadequate sanitation and water supplies.

USAID responds to emergency WASH needs through the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance, including the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), responsible for leading and coordinating the U.S. Government’s response to disasters overseas, and the Office of Food for Peace, responsible for leading the U.S. Government’s international food assistance efforts.

ofda

USAID/OFDA and its partners provide water supply services to a large camp of displaced people in northern Syria. Photo credit: USAID/OFDA

Combined, these two offices ensure that emergency and life-saving WASH needs of vulnerable populations are met in disaster, conflict, and early recovery operations. Where appropriate, emergency WASH connects to, supports, or aligns with the work that USAID will carry out under its Water and Development Plan to increase water and sanitation access, and is an important complementary result.

This issue contains several reviews and evaluations of WASH in emergency interventions as well as recent manuals and guidelines on appropriate technologies, disease outbreaks, menstrual hygiene management, and other topics. In addition to producing Water Currents, the USAID Water Team also publishes a biweekly bulletin of the latest studies and events related to WASH in emergencies, so contact us if you would like to subscribe to the bulletin. Stay tuned for a new Emergency WASH page on the Globalwaters.org website in the near future.

Link to the complete issue.

Development and Application of Novel Caregiver Hygiene Behavior Measures Relating to Food Preparation, Handwashing, and Play Environments in Rural Kenya

Development and Application of Novel Caregiver Hygiene Behavior Measures Relating to Food Preparation, Handwashing, and Play Environments in Rural KenyaInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 201815(9), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091994

Exposure to fecal pathogens results in both acute and chronic sequalae in young children. Diarrhea causes nearly 20% of all under-five mortality, while even sub-clinical enteric infections may lead to growth shortfalls. Stunting affects nearly 165 million children globally and results in lifelong and intergenerational effects for the world’s poorest populations. ijerph-logo

Caregiver hygiene behaviors, such as those surrounding handwashing and food preparation, play a critical role in exposure to fecal pathogens; standard metrics to assess these behaviors are warranted to provide a means of quantifying the impact these behaviors have on enteric infections and to evaluate the success or failure of interventions and programs.

This paper documents the development of three novel caregiver hygiene behavior measures: hygienic food preparation and storage, handwashing at key times, and provision of a safe play environment for children under two years.

We developed these measures using formative qualitative work, survey creation and deployment theoretically underpinned by the COM-B model of behavior change, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

The final measure for hygienic food preparation and storage includes 10 items across two factors; the final measure for handwashing at key times includes 15 items across three factors; and the final measure for safe play environment contains 13 items across three factors.

Future researchers may employ these measures to assess caregiver behaviors in other populations, identify specific behavioral dimensions that should be the focus of interventions, and evaluate interventions and programs

SEI – How can sanitation policy deliver in Africa? Insights from Rwanda and Uganda

How can sanitation policy deliver in Africa? Insights from Rwanda and Uganda. Stockholm Environment Institute, August 2018.

Sanitation is currently high on the international development agenda. But for policy to be effective, basic enabling factors are required – the right institutional environment and the right governance structures – which in many countries are not yet fully in place.

It is even more important to get these basic factors right as increasing numbers of public, private, and philanthropic bodies at different levels of society become involved in promoting and providing sanitation, driven largely by global goals and international development agendas.

This growing focus on sanitation has led to top-down pressure to meet prescribed targets, which in most cases miss the complexity of context, distort service priorities, and in some cases compromise sustainability.

Based on four years of research in Rwanda and Uganda examining sanitation governance structures, the author sets out policy insights on what is needed for sanitation policy to succeed in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Scoop on Poop: How Open Defecation Free Data Led to Activity Program Pivots in Ethiopia’s Lowlands

The Scoop on Poop: How Open Defecation Free Data Led to Activity Program Pivots in Ethiopia’s Lowlands. Author(s):Nikita Salgaonkar. Organization(s):USAID/Ethiopia, AECOM, September 2018. cla

Sanitation behavior change is a notoriously complex intervention. In the harsh, remote environment of the Ethiopian lowlands, this is particularly so. Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) interventions, while successful in Ethiopia’s densely populated highland areas, have never been implemented at scale in the lowlands.

We learned that in these communities, dominated by (semi-) pastoralist groups, that the operating conditions for effective, sustained behavior change are highly variable. A Collaborating, Learning and Adapting (CLA) approach helped the program team define, pivot and re-design activities that addressed project effectiveness.

Our experience is drawn from the USAID/Ethiopia-funded Lowland Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Activity that works to accelerate access to improved WASH in three rural lowland regions: Afar, Somali, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP).

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Webinar summary: The forgotten juncture? Handwashing and safe management of child feces

On August 22nd, 2018, the Global Handwashing Partnership, in conjunction with USAID, the International Water Center, the Water and Engineering Center for Development, and UNICEF hosted a discussion on the intersection of handwashing and the safe management of child feces. ghp

Safe disposal of children’s feces is a critical practice, and programs often under-emphasize critical times for handwashing related to infant and child feces. This webinar aimed to:
• Discuss the present status and impact of child feces disposal practices and handwashing,
• Highlight case studies, interventions and evidence,
• Share experiences across regions; and
• Review key considerations for practitioners.

Read the complete article and listen to the webinar.

Sept 26, 2018 Webinar on Designing Effective Sanitation Enterprises

Webinar on Designing Effective Sanitation Enterprises

  • Date: September 26, 2018
  • Time: 8–9:30 a.m. EDT (New York time)

The USAID-funded Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) Project invites you to a presentation and discussion on sanitation enterprises and design considerations. webinar

This webinar will examine the elements of a sanitation enterprise, including mechanisms and practices, design approaches, and key considerations based on the findings of a recent WASHPaLS desk review, Scaling Market-Based Sanitation: Desk Review on Market-Based Rural Sanitation Development Programs.

The presentation will be followed by a panel discussion with Anddy Omoluabiand Nneka Akwunwa, WaterAid Nigeria; Geoff Revell, WaterSHED Cambodia; Sanjay Singh, PSI India; and Rishi Agarwal, FSG.

Click on the link to register.

Enabling environments for inclusive citywide sanitation: a conceptual framework

Enabling environments for inclusive citywide sanitation: a conceptual framework. WSUP Blog, September 2018.

A necessary shift is taking place: away from a narrow focus on building taps and toilets, and towards an understanding of water and sanitation as a service, whose effectiveness depends on the wider enabling environment. In simple terms, universal coverage requires services which are 1) sustainable and 2) delivered at scale – and neither is possible without strong systems. wsup.png

In Stockholm the increasing momentum towards systems change was evident – my week began with an excellent “morning of systems” convened by Agenda for Change highlighting a number of ongoing initiatives in this area  –  and served to build on July’s UN High-Level Political Forum and the associated SDG 6 synthesis report, underlining the imperative to strengthen governance, finance and capacity development if we are to achieve universal access.

So how does WSUP work to strengthen systems? From the outset, system-strengthening has been embedded in our Theory of Change: we partner with institutions and the private sector to develop effective service delivery models, and work in parallel to create the conditions for these services to be provided at the city level, including within low-income areas.

Read the complete article.