Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

Sanitation in the News – January 14, 2020

We will update this page regularly with sanitation news items. Please let us know if you find this useful:

Liberia: ‘Water, Sanitation Key to Citizens’ Growth’ – New Dawn, January 14, 2020

Cholera symptoms can take five days to develop — Expert. Punch, January 13, 2020

Urgent health challenges for the next decade – WHO, January 13, 2020

Research on water economics, CLTS and other WASH research updates

The latest issue of the Oxford Review of Economic Policy has several interesting articles:

Evidence-based policy analysis? The strange case of the randomized controlled trials of community-led total sanitation. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Spring 2020. We show that cost–benefit analysis may still ‘save’ CLTS because small treatment effects may still yield net positive economic benefits if the costs of implementing CLTS programmes are modest. We also discuss the need to move beyond the desire for sanitation policies that are proven to be effective globally, and the importance of focusing on analysis of the local sanitation situation.

ntds

Shelmel Terefa, a school teacher, demonstrates face washing to students at his school in Aware-Golje village in the North Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Photo credit: Michael Amendolia/The Fred Hollows Foundation

Rethinking the economics of water: an assessment. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Spring 2020. The conventional economic policy recommendations—privatization, pricing, and property rights—have struggled due to a failure to account adequately for the politics of water and the associated distributional conflicts.

We identify distinctive social and physical characteristics of water supply and demand, and explore their implications for three central areas of water policy: financing infrastructure, pricing, and property rights reform.

Rethinking the economics of rural water in Africa. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Spring 2020. We explore why rural water is different for communities, schools, and healthcare facilities across characteristics of scale, institutions, demand, and finance. The findings conclude with policy recommendations to (i) network rural services at scale, (ii) unlock rural payments by creating value, and (iii) design and test performance-based funding models at national and regional scales.

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WASH research on privatization, child feces management, city sanitation planning and others

Also, be sure to check out the latest updates to Globalwaters.org:

  • 2019: The Year in Review – Take a look at some of the highlights of the year to see how USAID is making an impact.
  • USAID’s Impact: Ex-Post Evaluation Series – The positive impacts of USAID’s water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) activities are often hard to dispute, especially during the immediate time period after projects comes to a close. But how sustainable are these outcomes several years later?
  • USAID in the News – recent articles from Feed the Future, Haiti and Malawi

USAID Kenya Article globalwaters

The impact of the private provision of WASH services on sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, December 2019. By Michael W.Nicholson, USAID/Kenya – This paper analyzes the expanded role of the private sector in the provision of WASH services in Africa.  The  current  analysis  provides  an  empirical  inquiry  into  the  conditions  under which the private sector is attracted to the provision of WASH services and estimates its subsequent impact on both economic growth and inclusive development.

Upcoming Webinars

PRO-WASH – Prochain webinaire : Partage des expériences avec USAID/ACCES sur les stratégies de vente marketing et les mécanismes de financement pour l’assainissement rural – Quand? : Le mercredi 22 janvier à 9 h EST/UTC-5 en français.

Journal Articles

Child feces management (CFM) practices and fecal contamination: A cross-sectional study in rural Odisha, India. Science of The Total Environment, 20 March 2020. Authors: Valerie Bauza, Fiona Majorin, Parimita Routray, Gloria D.Sclar, Bethany A.Caruso, Thomas Clasen – Current CFM practices were found to increase fecal contamination in the environment and on hands. CFM hardware of potties and scoops can reduce fecal contamination, but had low use and shortcomings.

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WHO update on cholera in 2018

November 29, 2019 – Weekly Epidemiological Record

An excerpt – While the true global disease burden is not entirely captured by annual reporting of cholera epidemiological indicators by Member States to WHO, the overall number of cholera cases was 60% lower in 2018 than in 2017. who

The decrease in the global cholera burden is attributable to a large reduction in the number of cases in Yemen and significant decreases in other countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Somalia and South Sudan.

Overall, in 2018, 34 countries reported 499 447 cholera cases and 2990 cholera deaths to WHO, with a case-fatality rate (CFR) of 0.6% (Figure 1, Map 1 and Table 1).

Africa – Overall, in 2018, 34 countries reported 499 447 cholera cases and 2990 cholera deaths to WHO, with a case-fatality rate (CFR) of 0.6% (Figure 1, Map 1 and Table 1). After exclusion of cases reported in Yemen (where reporting is imprecise), the total numbers of cases and deaths reported globally in 2018 were 128 121 and 2485, respectively, a 34% decrease in the number of cases and a 27% decrease in that of deaths from 2017. The case load represents the fewest cases reported worldwide since 2004, when there were 101 383 cases (with 2345 deaths).

The epidemiology of cholera on the African continent showed the typical regional tendency. In West Africa, cholera transmission was high in Nigeria (with 45 000 cases in 2018 and only 12 000 in 2017), with subsequent spill-over into Cameroon and Chad. Other countries in the West African region saw no cholera cases, and only 2 cases were reported in Liberia.

Middle East and Asia – As in 2017, Yemen reported by far the most cholera cases in a single country in 2018, with 371 326 cases and 505 deaths (Figure 2). This nevertheless represented a great improvement over the previous year, with a 64% decrease in the number of cases and a 78% decrease in the number of deaths. While the way in which cholera cases were reported changed during the year, the decreases in numbers of cases and deaths represented greater mobilization by the Government and partners in improving water, sanitation and hygiene and in providing adequate medical care of cases.

The Americas – In Haiti, a strategy for an integrated rapid response to outbreaks resulted in 2018 in the fewest cases since the start of the cholera epidemic in 2010 (Figure 2). The Dominican Republic continues to report relatively few cases, and the number is decreasing over time, in parallel with the numbers in Haiti.

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Updates from WHO | Recent WASH research |ADB study on sanitation

We hope these informal WASH research updates have been useful to you in 2019. Please let us know if you have suggestions for future updates or if you wish to be removed from the subscriber list.

Also, be sure to check out Globalwaters.org for new blog posts, publications, events and news. 3-2-iDE-Cambodia WASH DIB-PR-07_Photo by Chhom Dinat

USAID/CLA

Water for Life: Using CLA to Transform a WASH System into a Self-Reliant Apparatus. CLA, 2019. The development challenge addressed in this case is increasing access to safe water for marginalized and under-served populations.

Transforming Communities and Staff One Latrine at a Time in Rural Angola. CLA, 2019. The WASH Project Team uses experiential exercises like the CLTS methodology to inspire community members to explore, discover and decide the best way to improve their water, sanitation and hygiene resources in Songo.

WHO

Water, sanitation, hygiene and health: a primer for health professionals. WHO, 2019. This WASH and health primer summarizes the status of WASH services globally and gives an overview of WASH interventions and linkages with health.

New global review of WASH and health – Safer Water Better Health. WHO, 2019. The comprehensive global review presented in Safer Water, Better Health updates the overall disease burden attributable to quantifiable effects of inadequate WASH for 12 major diseases, adverse health outcomes and injuries.

Position paper: Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice. WHO, 2019. In 2018, the WASH sector was surprised by three new high-quality studies that showed little or no impact of selected WASH interventions on reducing childhood diarrhoea and stunting. The WHO/UNICEF position paper summarizes the studies, contextualizes the findings within the wider body of evidence and distils the implications for future investments.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Product Design Supporting Improved Water, Sanitation, and Energy Services Delivery in Low-Income Settings. Sustainability, November 2019. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature supporting product design applied in low-income settings. These approaches have typically focused on individual- and household-level beneficiaries, with an emphasis on participatory, human-centered co-design methods. In this paper, we present a design approach that is, in contrast, focused on supporting providers of improved water, sanitation, and energy services.

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Market Based Programming for WASH in Humanitarian Situations

Market Based Programming (MBP) for WASH in Humanitarian Situations, December 2019

Case Studies/Country Reports

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response. Conflict and Health, 2018.
Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets. SWS

Strengthening market systems that provide water and hygiene items for cholera mitigation and emergency preparedness in Haiti. Waterlines, October 2018.
In the context of the cholera epidemics in Haiti, a pre-crisis market analysis (PCMA) was conducted in Artibonite to study the supply of and demand for various water- and hygiene-related items.

Pathways to professionalised community water services in a protracted crisis: a case from Juba. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
The paper depicts Oxfam South Sudan experience in professionalizing a community-based operating entity responsible for managing a water treatment plant in Juba, through WASH Market-based Programming. It describes how this was achieved by supporting the development of a business implementation plan and provision of tailored institutional support.

Refugees: The Most in Need of Zakat Funds. UNHCR, 2019.
Our cash assistance program is an innovative way to ensure that 100% of Zakat donations go to people most in need, to spend on what they need most, instead of providing them with truckloads of unwanted supplies.

Overviews

WASH Market-Based Programming in Emergencies: Overview. Oxfam, 2018.
This overview, and the WASH and Markets in Crisis series linked to it, describes the impacts of crises on market systems, and introduces the benefits of market-based programming.

Using pre-crisis market analysis to strengthen emergency preparedness and resilience of WASH systems. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
This paper describes Oxfam’s experiences using pre-crisis market analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe in order to support market-based programming to strengthen the resilience of market systems and prepare for reoccurring emergencies

Briefing note 2: Types of Market-Based Programming to Strengthen Emergency Responses. Oxfam, 2018.
This briefing note describes different types of WASH market-based programming used in pre-crisis, emergency or post-crisis contexts, giving examples from Oxfam’s experiences in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Zimbabwe.

Building evidence to inform the effective use of cash in emergency sanitation and hygiene programming. Save the Children; ODI, 2018.
An analysis of five case studies of utilization of cash/voucher assistance are presented and analyzed in the attempt of building evidence on their utilization in emergency WASH Sanitation and HP programming. Findings and recommendations are provided on coordination, situation and response analysis, program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Working with WASH market systems to improve emergency response and resilience in urban areas. HPN, 2018.
With funding from USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), Oxfam set out to promote market-based responses to emergencies using pre-crisis market mapping and analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe, focusing primarily in urban areas.

Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts. Journal of Environmental Management, June 2018. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action.

Cash and Markets In the WASH Sector: A global WASH Cluster position paper. GWC, 2016. The proposed benefits of working through existing market systems include improvements to speed, efficiency and effectiveness of programming and increased beneficiary dignity and choice.

WASH and Cash and Voucher Assistance. Cash Learning Partnership.
In recent years the use of conditional Cash and Voucher Assistance to achieve WASH outcomes has steadily grown. CVA has been used to increase access to drinking water through water vendors or small shops, or through the use of kits for treating and storing water. Cash for work has been used for the repair and recovery of the piped water network.

Other Studies/Reports

Mobilising cash and voucher assistance programmes: The case for mobile money. GSMA, 2019.
Although the fastest means of disbursement at the immediate onset of a crisis is to deliver physical cash, digital options offer greater benefits longer term.

What does gender-sensitive cash and voucher assistance look like? CARE, 2019.
The study aimed at understanding the: Extent to which women, men, boys, and girls have been involved in the design of CVA and the implications of this involvement. Potential for CVA to foster positive and sustainable gender roles and relations that contribute to gender equity.

New financing partnerships for humanitarian impact. ODI, 2019.
Innovative finance applies to using market-based investments – which generate a financial return – rather than grants.

Cost-Effectiveness in Humanitarian Work: Cash-Based Programming. IDS, 2018.
The evidence reviewed also points to the limits of CBR; cash interventions are unable to tackle systemic issues around quality of service provision, education and largely also health (albeit they can help cover costs of dealing with small ailments, or channel some resources into the WASH sector

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IDS sanitation research | PEER research proposals | Recent WASH research

IDS SANITATION RESEARCH

Who is being left behind in Swachh Bharat Mission? How do we include them? Immersive research report by WaterAid India with Institute of Development Studies, gives insight into who is missed in sanitation programming in areas of India and how to include them. podcast

‘More or less: A rapid review of ‘water for toilets’ in rural India’, examines both technical and behavioural aspects surrounding water collection, management and consumption related to toilet use in rural India. It provides recommendations for steps forward.

Retrofitting of toilets is a complex and challenging stream of work and is included as one of the main components of Open Defecation Free-Sustainability (ODF-S) plans under Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin (SBM-G). This rapid topic review ‘Retrofitting: The Next Step for the Swachh Bharat Mission?’ aims to provide recent evidence and insights into the scale and nature of the challenges of retrofitting.

PEER RESEARCH PROPOSALS

PEER Cycle 9 Call for Proposals Now Open – On behalf of PEER’s sponsors at USAID, the National Academies are happy to announce that this year’s cycle of PEER is now open and accepting proposals. There are several country-specific focus areas: urban WASH and transboundary water in Afghanistanclean energy in Bangladeshmultiple research sectors in Tunisia, and bioremediation of dioxins and furans in Vietnam.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

School-based, blacklight handwashing program can improve handwashing quality and knowledge among pre-school aged children. Evaluation and Program Planning, February 2020. Authors: Deirdre Dingman, Jingwei Wub, Heather M.Murphy – Puzzles and structured handwashing observations can be used as handwashing evaluation tools. Use of a black light technology as an educational tool can help to improve handwashing quality among pre-school aged children.

Impact of the “BALatrine” Intervention on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Central Java, Indonesia: A Pilot Study. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., Dec 2019. We tested a low-cost, locally designed and constructed all-weather latrine (the “BALatrine”), together with community education promoting appropriate hygiene-related behaviour, to determine whether this integrated intervention effectively controlled soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections.

Relationship of sanitation, water boiling, and mosquito nets to health biomarkers in a rural subsistence population. Am Jnl Human Biology, Dec 2019. This suggests that relatively low cost and low maintenance public health interventions may wish to focus on latrine use, as there is unmet need and potential health benefits for those who use latrines. Additionally, while the cost is higher, public health organizations aimed at improving sanitation may be able to use minimally invasive field‐collected biomarkers as a diagnostic to objectively test the efficacy of interventions with greater specificity than anthropometric measurements.

Citywide Inclusive Sanitation through Scheduled Desludging Services: Emerging Experience from India. Front. Environ. Sci., 27 November 2019. This paper first reviews the need for regular desludging of septic tanks. It then outlines the emerging experience of design and implementation of scheduled desludging for inclusive, equitable, and sustainable sanitation to achieve social and environmental benefits in two Indian cities. In these cities, a performance-linked annuity payment framework is used to engage a private desludging enterprise. Payment is met through a sanitation tax and transfer from the general property taxes.

VIDEOS

Kenya RAPID video shows impact in year 4. MWA, Dec 2019. See this above video for an update on Kenya RAPID as it nears its fifth and final year of implementation.

BLOG POSTS/NEWS ARTICLES

Water, Sanitation Can Systematically Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in India. The Wire, Dec 2019. Limited access to water, sanitation and waste management services, increases risk of infections and leads to greater dependence on antibiotics which contributes to AMR.

By, for, and of the People: How Citizen Science Enhances Water Security. New Security Beat, Dec 2019. This article is part of ECSP’s Water Security for a Resilient World series, a partnership with USAID’s Sustainable Water Partnership and Winrock International to share stories about global water security.