Author Archives: usaidwaterckm

Emergency WASH Biweekly Update, August 15, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Below are recent Emergency WASH-related studies, reports and blog posts. We received a suggestion to include more general WASH-related research in the biweekly updates and CKM does distribute a Weekly WASH Research Update, August 12, 2019 so just let me know if you would like to subscribe to the weekly research updates.

WEBINARS

Water as a Tool for Resilience in Times of Crisis – Water security professionals discussed the latest thinking about water’s impact on fragile regions in a recent panel discussion. The panel included Basil Mahayni of the USAID-funded Sustainable Water Partnership; Cynthia Brady, formerly of USAID; David De Armey of Water for Good, an international NGO; Abigail Jones of USAID; and Erika Weinthal of Duke University.

REPORTS eehh

How to design handwashing facilities that change behavior. Wash’Em, August 2019. There are several reasons why handwashing facilities can have an important effect on behavior.

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 report and presentations, August 2019. This event report covers the 9th Emergency Environmental Health Forum which was held on 17-18 June 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. The theme of the conference was ‘Disease Outbreaks and Their Control’.

Guidance on market based programming for humanitarian WASH practitioners. Global WASH Cluster, 2019. How market based programming can complement and improve WASH programming; How to conduct a WASH market assessment

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Faeces to fertiliser: innovations to solve the world’s toilets crisis

Faeces to fertiliser: innovations to solve the world’s toilets crisis. SciDev, July 2019.

Speed read

  • Pit latrines still best for regions without sewage systems
  • Improvements include membranes to collect faeces and dry flushes to save water
  • Community buy-in crucial to toilet innovation success

With nearly 1.4 billion people still lacking access to even the most basic toilet, researchers around the world are looking for innovative solutions, writes Inga Vesper.

First, some good news. Since the year 2000, the number of people forced to defecate in the open has fallen by more than half to an estimated 673 million. However, 2 billion people still lack basic sanitation services, with more than 700 million relying on rudimentary holes or pits, a World Health Organization (WHO) report showed last month. scidev

The problem is concentrated on around 60 high-burden countries, mostly in Africa and Asia, where water is scarce and infrastructure — such as sewer systems and water treatment plants — can be difficult to maintain. Open defecation is widely practised in some countries, but it is not a suitable alternative. It contaminates food and water through flies and can be dangerous to girls and women, as it forces them to seek out isolated spots away from their homes.

But changing toilet practices is surprisingly difficult. “It’s something quite intimate,” says Rémi Kaupp, a sanitation engineer for the UK-based charity WaterAid. “People don’t want governments or agencies to impose what kind of toilet they have in their home. What they want is someone to deal with the aftermath.”

Read the complete article.

Wash’Em – How to design handwashing facilities that change behaviour

How to design handwashing facilities that change behaviour. WASH’Em, August 2019.

In a crisis, humanitarians are often responsible for providing or repairing handwashing infrastructure for the affected population. This creates an opportunity for us to build infrastructure and provide products which encourage people to practice handwashing with soap. washem-logo

Why are handwashing facilities important?
Did you know that having a handwashing facility makes you 50% more likely to wash your hands? If it is conveniently placed near the toilet or kitchen and has soap and water available, then people are up to 80% more likely to practice handwashing.

There are several reasons why handwashing facilities can have an important effect on behaviour. Imagine you are leaving the toilet. If you see a handwashing facility, this is likely to act as a trigger, reminding you to wash your hands. If you don’t see a handwashing facility you might get distracted with other things and forget to wash hands.

Even if you did want to wash your hands where there was no handwashing facility present, you would probably have to go to a lot more effort to walk to somewhere that has soap and water. In the process you may touch and contaminate lots of other
surfaces.

Often the level of effort required would act as a barrier to regular handwashing.
As humanitarians it is unethical and a waste of resources to do hygiene promotion if handwashing facilities, soap and water are not readily available to the population. In the acute phase of a crisis, handwashing infrastructure and products must be our first priority.

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 report and presentations

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 Report

  • Acknowledgements
  • Executive Summary eehh
  • Opening address
  • Key Note Speech: Disease outbreaks and their control
  • Panel Discussion: Capacity of the WASH Sector in epidemic and pandemic response
  • Plenary 1: Cholera – prevention and preparedness
  • Plenary 2: Handwashing, acceptability of interventions and community engagement
  • Plenary 3: Cholera – control and containment of outbreaks
  • Plenary 4: Hepatitis E and vector control
  • Plenary 5: Faecal sludge management and sanitation
    Plenary 6: Household water treatment and safe storage

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 Presentations

USAID Updates | Aug 2019 WASH research | Blog updates

USAID UPDATES

USAID Participation at Stockholm World Water Week 2019 – USAID sessions this year will cover topics ranging from the role of women in water leadership to promoting self-reliance through financing of water and sanitation services to building resilient water and food systems. armenia

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Effect of in-line drinking water chlorination at the point of collection on child diarrhoea in urban Bangladesh: a double-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Global Health, Sept 2019. Passive chlorination at the point of collection could be an effective and scalable strategy in low-income urban settings for reducing child diarrhea and for achieving global progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 to attain universal access to safe and affordable drinking water.

Experiences of capacity strengthening in sanitation and hygiene research in Africa and Asia: the SHARE Research Consortium. Health Research Policy and Systems, Aug 2019. Strategies that yielded success were learning by doing (supporting institutions and postgraduate students on sanitation and hygiene research), providing fellowships to appoint mid-career scientists to support personal and institutional development, and supporting tailored capacity-building plans.

Toward Complementary Food Hygiene Practices among Child Caregivers in Rural Malawi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 7 Aug. Selected contextual (i.e., presence of handwashing facility, locally made dish rack and ownership of animals) and psychosocial factors which include normative, ability, and self-regulation (remembering) factors have been identified as strong predictors for the success of an intervention that focuses on washing of utensils with soap, keeping of utensils on an elevated place, and hand washing with soap at critical times.

Broad approaches to cholera control in Asia: Water, sanitation and handwashing. Vaccine, Aug 2. Household interventions only marginally reduce cholera risk. Water and sanitation infrastructure provides multiple benefits. New approaches and institutional flexibility needed to address cholera.

The future of groundwater in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature, Aug 7. An analysis of aquifer replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa shows that reduced precipitation does not always deplete groundwater reserves, challenging the idea that these reserves will decrease in response to global warming.

REPORTS

What Proportion Counts? Disaggregating Access to Safely Managed Sanitation in an Emerging Town in Tanzania. Preprints, Aug 6. This study demonstrates the possibility of using simple survey tools to collect reliable data for monitoring progress towards safely managed sanitation in the towns of global south.

Monitoring Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Measuring Progress for Girls related to Menstruation Meeting Report. Columbia University and WSSCC, 2019. Overall, findings highlight the complexity of addressing menstruation in societies around the world that have ongoing menstrual restrictions and taboos that are relevant for the design of interventions.

Running Dry: Tackling the myths about urban water and sanitation. WSUP, July 2019. WSUP has identified five myths which are stopping investors, agencies and policymakers from properly addressing the inadequate access to essential water and sanitation services in cities across Africa and South Asia.

BLOG POSTS

Reflections on a Review of Studies on the Physical and Emotional Toll of Carrying Water. Engineering for Change, Aug 1. UNC’s review includes takeaways for developing strategies to meet the challenge of water provision. The health problems associated with water carriage can only be eliminated if all households have water on premises, which is one of the parameters of ‘safely managed’ water called for under the Sustainable Development Goals. In areas where water fetching must continue, strategies should focus on reducing the distance to water sources, providing alternatives to carrying water on the head, such as wheelbarrows, and eliminating gender-based violence

For street vendors, finding water and toilets isn’t just a nuisance, it’s cutting into earnings. IIED, Aug 7. Guest blogger Carlin Carr argues that providing street vendors access to safe, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene resources benefits not just sellers, but the wider community too.

Rooted in Research, Handwashing Stations Designed to Encourage Kids to Wash Their Hands. WASHfunders, Aug 2019.

DATA SOURCES

World Resources Institute Aqueduct 3.0 Country Rankings – This dataset shows countries and provinces’ average exposure to six of Aqueduct 3.0’s water risk indicators: baseline water stress, riverine flood risk, and drought risk. Scores are also available for all industrial, agricultural, and domestic users’ average exposure to each indicator in each country and province basin.

Humanitarian WASH presentations at World Water Week 2019

SIWI has prepared a useful 205 page report that contains a compilation of the oral and written scientific presentations that have been chosen for this year’s seminars and the link is:

https://admin.worldwaterweek.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/abstract-volume-all-seminars.pdf

Below are highlights and conclusions from 9 presentations that discuss humanitarian WASH-related issues. Just go to the page number to see the complete abstract and additional information about the author. emergencies

Page 65 – Business innovations in sanitation for refugee settlements in East Africa
Authors: Dr. Miriam Otoo, International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka

The paper shows that different waste-reuse business models have great potential to support the provision of sustainable sanitation service delivery and improve livelihoods of refugee communities, by using generated revenues from recovered resources to bridge financial gaps and complement other supporting mechanisms for waste management, and catalyzing small business creation.

Conclusions and recommendations: Market-driven mechanisms are increasingly being adopted in the sanitation sector to catalyze higher degrees of cost recovery or profit generating to better deliver waste management services, and this applies to refugee settlements and rural host communities. Resource recovery and reuse of waste has an important role to play in the provision of sustainable sanitation service delivery, however limited to no cultural acceptance of production practices and end-use of recovered resources from human waste can hinder business creation in the sector. Capacity development that directly engages both refugee and host communities will be critical to mitigate the effects of these barriers

Page 107 – Water and sanitation, migration and the 2030 Agenda
Authors: Dr. Guy Jobbins, Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom

This briefing explores the relationships between water, sanitation and migration, and how they may affect the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Specifically, we discuss the fact that while water and sanitation do not appear to drive migration, the process of migration can radically shape access to water and sanitation services – particularly for undocumented migrants and people in transit. We question whether attaining universal access to safely managed water and sanitation services is possible without specific measures to address the needs of refugees and other migrants.

Conclusions and recommendations: 1) Migration isn’t driven by a lack of water and sanitation services, but governments which provide services can support successful migration. 108 2) Achieving universal WASH access will not be possible unless all people have access to water and sanitation services, regardless of their migratory status. 3) Challenges stem from failures in governance, not the amount of water available, numbers of migrants or rates of migration; strengthened water governance can help better cope with the impacts of migration. 4) The poor visibility of migrants in data limits understanding of their needs and reduces the accountability of governments and service providers.

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Taking the Pulse of a Water Lifeline to Hundreds of Millions of People – Global Waters

Taking the Pulse of a Water Lifeline to Hundreds of Millions of People. Global Waters, July 2019.

Unlocking the secrets of glaciers and snowpack in Asia’s highest mountains helps prepare downstream communities for a more water-variable future.

Since 2012, USAID’s CHARIS project, led by the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has brought researchers and decision-makers together from across High Asia to step up monitoring efforts of the region’s snowfields and glaciers and study regional hydrological variability. globalwaters

The ultimate goal is to contribute to sustainable water management decisions in downstream communities so that they may better cope with anticipated future shifts in water availability.

Read the complete article.