Market Based Programming for WASH in Humanitarian Situations

Market Based Programming (MBP) for WASH in Humanitarian Situations, December 2019

Case Studies/Country Reports

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response. Conflict and Health, 2018.
Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets. SWS

Strengthening market systems that provide water and hygiene items for cholera mitigation and emergency preparedness in Haiti. Waterlines, October 2018.
In the context of the cholera epidemics in Haiti, a pre-crisis market analysis (PCMA) was conducted in Artibonite to study the supply of and demand for various water- and hygiene-related items.

Pathways to professionalised community water services in a protracted crisis: a case from Juba. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
The paper depicts Oxfam South Sudan experience in professionalizing a community-based operating entity responsible for managing a water treatment plant in Juba, through WASH Market-based Programming. It describes how this was achieved by supporting the development of a business implementation plan and provision of tailored institutional support.

Refugees: The Most in Need of Zakat Funds. UNHCR, 2019.
Our cash assistance program is an innovative way to ensure that 100% of Zakat donations go to people most in need, to spend on what they need most, instead of providing them with truckloads of unwanted supplies.

Overviews

WASH Market-Based Programming in Emergencies: Overview. Oxfam, 2018.
This overview, and the WASH and Markets in Crisis series linked to it, describes the impacts of crises on market systems, and introduces the benefits of market-based programming.

Using pre-crisis market analysis to strengthen emergency preparedness and resilience of WASH systems. 41st WEDC Conference, 2018.
This paper describes Oxfam’s experiences using pre-crisis market analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe in order to support market-based programming to strengthen the resilience of market systems and prepare for reoccurring emergencies

Briefing note 2: Types of Market-Based Programming to Strengthen Emergency Responses. Oxfam, 2018.
This briefing note describes different types of WASH market-based programming used in pre-crisis, emergency or post-crisis contexts, giving examples from Oxfam’s experiences in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Zimbabwe.

Building evidence to inform the effective use of cash in emergency sanitation and hygiene programming. Save the Children; ODI, 2018.
An analysis of five case studies of utilization of cash/voucher assistance are presented and analyzed in the attempt of building evidence on their utilization in emergency WASH Sanitation and HP programming. Findings and recommendations are provided on coordination, situation and response analysis, program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Working with WASH market systems to improve emergency response and resilience in urban areas. HPN, 2018.
With funding from USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), Oxfam set out to promote market-based responses to emergencies using pre-crisis market mapping and analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe, focusing primarily in urban areas.

Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts. Journal of Environmental Management, June 2018. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action.

Cash and Markets In the WASH Sector: A global WASH Cluster position paper. GWC, 2016. The proposed benefits of working through existing market systems include improvements to speed, efficiency and effectiveness of programming and increased beneficiary dignity and choice.

WASH and Cash and Voucher Assistance. Cash Learning Partnership.
In recent years the use of conditional Cash and Voucher Assistance to achieve WASH outcomes has steadily grown. CVA has been used to increase access to drinking water through water vendors or small shops, or through the use of kits for treating and storing water. Cash for work has been used for the repair and recovery of the piped water network.

Other Studies/Reports

Mobilising cash and voucher assistance programmes: The case for mobile money. GSMA, 2019.
Although the fastest means of disbursement at the immediate onset of a crisis is to deliver physical cash, digital options offer greater benefits longer term.

What does gender-sensitive cash and voucher assistance look like? CARE, 2019.
The study aimed at understanding the: Extent to which women, men, boys, and girls have been involved in the design of CVA and the implications of this involvement. Potential for CVA to foster positive and sustainable gender roles and relations that contribute to gender equity.

New financing partnerships for humanitarian impact. ODI, 2019.
Innovative finance applies to using market-based investments – which generate a financial return – rather than grants.

Cost-Effectiveness in Humanitarian Work: Cash-Based Programming. IDS, 2018.
The evidence reviewed also points to the limits of CBR; cash interventions are unable to tackle systemic issues around quality of service provision, education and largely also health (albeit they can help cover costs of dealing with small ailments, or channel some resources into the WASH sector

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