WASH research on CLTS, latrines, menstrual hygiene, food hygiene, etc.

In addition to the studies and reports listed below, recent updates to Globalwaters.org include:


How does Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) promote latrine construction, and can it be improved? A cluster-randomized controlled trial in Ghana. Social Science & Medicine, 2 December 2019. Authors: Miriam Harter, Jennifer Inauen, Hans-JoachimMosler – CLTS increased latrine coverage by 67.6%. CLTS achieved changes in psychosocial determinants based on a psychosocial model.

Costs and Willingness to Pay for Pit Latrine Emptying Services in Kigali, Rwanda. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, November 2019. Authors: Zachary Burt, Rachel Sklar and Ashley Murray – Our results show that households had strong preferences for fecal sludge (FS) treatment, formalized services (which include worker protections), and distant disposal.

Infant Food Hygiene and Childcare Practices in Context: Findings from an Urban Informal Settlement in Kenya. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, November 18, 2019. Authors: Jane Awiti, Odhiambo Mumma, Oliver Cumming, Sheillah Simiyu, Alexandra Czerniewska, Rose Evalyne Aseyo, Damaris Nelima Muganda, Emily Davis, Kelly K. Baker and Robert Dreibelbis – Our findings demonstrate that behaviors associated with food contamination, such as hand feeding and storing food for extended periods, are determined largely by the larger social and economic realities of primary caretakers. Data also show how caregiving within an informal settlement is highly dynamic and involves multiple individuals and locations throughout the day.

Economic cost analysis of low-cost sanitation technology options in informal settlement areas (case study: Soweto, Johannesburg). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, January 2020. Authors: Musa Manga, Jamie Bartram, Barbara E.Evans – The study revealed that simplified sewerage is the cheapest option for Soweto informal settlement, even when the costs of pumping and treatment are included.

Gendered Water Insecurity: A Structural Equation Approach for Female Headed Households in South Africa. Water, November 2019. Authors: Saul Ngarava, Leocadia Zhou, Nomakhaya Monde – The study concludes that there are dynamic relationships in water insecurity (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) for female-headed households in South Africa.

Resilience by design: A deep uncertainty approach for water systems in a changing world. Water Security, April 2020. Resilience by Design is a generalizable approach offering important new methods of planning and managing for the resilience of critical infrastructure.


Health, Safety and Dignity of Sanitation Workers: An Initial Assessment. World Bank, November 2019.

Measurement in the study of menstrual health and hygiene: A systematic review and audit, November 2019. Authors: Julie Hennegan, Deborah Jordan, Brooks Kellogg, J. Schwab G.J. Melendez-Torres. Results of this audit indicate the need for the development and validation of new measures, and the evaluation of the performance of existing measures across contexts. In particular, the definition and measurement of menstrual practices, knowledge, attitudes, norms and restrictions should be addressed.


Channeling Financial Flows for Urban Water and Sanitation. CSIS Briefs. November 27, 2019. Through development agencies like USAID and OPIC, the United States can leverage additional private capital and increase the efficiency of existing water and sanitation programs.

Glass Half Full? Innovative Technologies Could Increase Global Water Security. New Security Beat, November 21, 2019. This article is part of ECSP’s Water Security for a Resilient World series, a partnership with USAID’s Sustainable Water Partnership and Winrock International to share stories about global water security.

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