The association of water carriage, water supply and sanitation usage with maternal and child health. A combined analysis of 49 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 41 countries. Authors: Jo-Anne L. Geere and Paul R. Hunter. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
- Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.08.007
Results: Compared to households in which no-one collects water, water fetching by any household member is associated with reduced odds of a woman giving birth in a health care facility.
Adults collecting water is associated with increased relative risk of childhood death, children collecting water is associated with increased odds of diarrheal disease and women or girls collecting water is associated with reduced uptake of antenatal care and increased odds of leaving a child under five alone for one or more hours, one or more days per week.
Unimproved water supply is associated with childhood diarrhea, but not child deaths, or growth scores.
When the percentage of people using improved sanitation is more than 80% an association with reduced childhood death and stunting was observed, and when more than 60%, usage of improved sanitation was associated with reduction of diarrhea and acute undernutrition.