Recent WASH research on water carrying, behavior change, container-based sanitation, etc.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Putting the “A” into WaSH: a call for integrated management of water, animals, sanitation, and hygiene. Lancet Planetary Health, August 2019. The first step—putting the “A” into WASH—is to shift the thinking to accelerate progress towards transformative WASH by considering pathways of enteropathogen transmission that are not currently central to WaSH strategies. We believe more substantial reductions in household and environmental fecal contamination are possible through concerted efforts to collectively improve the health of animals, humans, and the environment, while maintaining the benefits of livestock ownership. ghana

The association of water carriage, water supply and sanitation usage with maternal and child health. A combined analysis of 49 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 41 countries. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2 September 2019. Fetching water is associated with poorer maternal and child health outcomes, depending on who collects water. The percentage of people using improved sanitation seems to be more important than type of toilet facility, and must be high to observe an association with reduced child deaths and diarrhea. Water access on premises, and near universal usage of improved sanitation, is associated with improvements to maternal and child health.

Theory-driven formative research to inform the design of a national sanitation campaign in Tanzania. PLoS One, August 2019. The resulting Theory of Change recommended that the intervention should surprise people with a novel conversation about toilets, promote toilets as a means of conferring status, and introduce a perceived urgency to ‘act now’.

Behaviour settings theory applied to domestic water use in Nigeria: A new conceptual tool for the study of routine behavior. Social Science & Medicine, August 2019. Improving public health will require the disruption of settings, for example, through bringing water infrastructure directly to the home, through the sale of new props that facilitate hygienic routines, or in the disruption of gender roles via the promotion of new norms.

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low-income settlements. Waterlines, July 2019. Drawing on an initial review of existing CBS services, this paper identifies and evaluates these factors in relation to establishing CBS in a new service location. By applying a weighted scoring matrix to these factors, the potential viability of CBS services has been assessed for urban informal settlements in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya? Science of The Total Environment, 1 December 2019. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information.

Effect of well drilling on Buruli ulcer incidence in Benin: a case-control, quantitative survey. Lancet Planetary Health, August 2019. A case-control study showed that regular use of the water from the wells for washing, bathing, drinking, or cooking was protective against Buruli ulcer.

A framework for targeting water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in pastoralist populations in the Afar region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, September 2019. The Pastoralist Community WASH Risk Assessment visually interprets the seriousness of the risks against the difficulty of addressing the problem.

REPORTS

Small Water Enterprises: Transforming Women from Water Carriers to Water Entrepreneurs. Safe Water Network; USAID, August 2019. You will find in this report a description of a pilot initiative to empower women—as owners and operators—of SWEs. It describes the challenges and barriers facing women and the opportunities and solutions we have developed to enable their success as active participants in the SWE value chain.

Technical Brief No. 1 on Menstrual Hygiene Safe Disposal: Observations from Menstrual Waste Disposal Practices in Shared and Public Toilet Spaces (India). Gates Foundation, August 2019. Women expressed preference for discrete on-site disposal, mechanical collection and handling of waste, reliable female caretakers, well-lit toilet stalls that offered privacy, water and soap for washing, paper to wrap used materials before throwing.

Technical Brief No. 2 on Menstrual Hygiene Safe Disposal: Informing Standards Development for Small-scale Incinerators Frequently Deployed in Shared & Public Spaces (India). Gates Foundation, August 2019. Incinerators, however, pose certain health and environmental related risks and challenges. With the lack of regulatory standards for small and medium scale incinerators in India, many of the incinerators available in the market do not adhere to sound design principles

UPGro Hidden Crisis Research Consortium: project approach for defining and assessing rural water supply functionality and levels of performance, 2019. This technical brief is aimed at sharing the learning and approaches developed by the UPGro Hidden Crisis Research Project to look at how the functionality and performance levels of boreholes equipped with handpumps (HPBs), can be assessed using a common set of definitions and methods.

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