Recent research on sanitation systems, water safety plans, enabling environments

The use of qualitative comparative analysis to identify pathways to successful and failed sanitation systems. Science of The Total Environment, 1 May 2019.
Sanitation failure is not systematically understood. Qualitative comparative analysis elucidated pathways for success and failure. Successful systems needed O&M resources, local engagement, and community buy-in. Failed systems lacked municipal engagement, addressed priorities, and O&M support. Systems must be implemented with a holistic view to best use limited resources.

Capacity building and training approaches for water safety plans: A comprehensive literature review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 8 February 2019.
We propose a WSP training taxonomy and discuss it in relation to the stages of learning (introduction, practice, and reinforcement); describe the importance of customizing training to the target group, local language and circumstances; highlight the relevance of auditing for evaluating change over time; and call for robust methods to monitor WSP capacity development.

The Enabling Environment for Participation in Water and Sanitation: A Conceptual Framework. Water, Feb 2019.
This paper explores elements from the theory and practice of participation, applied to the management of water resources and water and sanitation services. Based on an in-depth literature review, we analyze the forms of participation in water and sanitation, their outcomes, as well as the contextual factors and procedural elements of participatory processes that affect their success.

Health and social impacts of open defecation on women: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 6 February 2019.
The review identified 4 overarching themes; Health Impacts of open defecation, Increased risk of sexual exploitation, Threat to women’s privacy and dignity and Psychosocial stressors linked to open defecation, which clearly present a serious situation of poor sanitation in rural communities of Lower-Middle Income Countries (LMICs). The findings of the review identified that open defecation promotes poor health in women with long-term negative effects on their psychosocial well-being, however it is a poorly researched topic.

Systematic review of menstrual hygiene management requirements, its barriers and strategies for disabled people. PLoS One, Feb 6, 2019.
Little evidence was identified on the requirements of disabled people and their carers in managing their menstruation, and only one intervention, but a range of barriers were identified. This gap in evidence is important, as the consequences of failing to meet menstrual hygiene needs of disabled people includes shame, social isolation, and even sterilisation.

Integrating Typhoid Fever Within the Sustainable Development Goals: Pragmatism or Utopia? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15 February 2019.
This article reviews some of the approaches that may help elevate typhoid to a higher level of awareness in public health programs and policy and to ensure that investments in major public health preventive measures are made part of the universal health coverage agenda.

The impact of improved water, sanitation and hygiene on oral rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in Zimbabwean infants: sub-study of a cluster-randomized trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 16 February 2019.
Improvements in household WASH led to modest but significant increases in seroconversion to oral rotavirus vaccine in rural Zimbabwean infants.

Effect of a sanitation intervention on soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and concentration in household soil: A cluster-randomized controlled trial and risk factor analysis. PLoS NTDs, 11 February 2019.
The sanitation intervention did not reduce STH contamination in household soil, suggesting households with access to improved sanitation may still be exposed to STH in the household environment. Risk factors for the presence of STH soil contamination included sharing toilets, an uncovered latrine pit, latrines <2 years old, owning dogs, shade on the sampling location, and high soil moisture content.

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