Sanitation research on WASH in schools; latrine use behavior; latrine hygiene

The impact of water consumption on hydration and cognition among schoolchildren: Methods and results from a crossover trial in rural Mali. PLoS One, January 2019. Although there was a trend indicating drinking water may improve cognitive test performance, as has been shown in studies in other settings, results were not statistically significant and were masked by a “practice effect.”

Latent variable modeling to develop a robust proxy for sensitive behaviors: application to latrine use behavior and its association with sanitation access in a middle-income country. BMC Public Health, January 2019.
First and foremost, gender specific indicators, which may be different by life course stage, will likely provide better insight into population-level drivers of behavior and more accurate classification of latrine users. Second, inconsistent latrine use may have a different set of determinants than consistent latrine use, as these behaviors are not strictly opposites. Third, because psychosocial norms, attitudes, and beliefs may change over time, longitudinal analysis are required to determine if these indicators are temporally consistent.

Sand barriers around latrine pits reduce fecal bacterial leaching into shallow groundwater: a randomized controlled trial in coastal Bangladesh. Environ. Sci. Technol., January 2019.
The sand barrier latrine monitoring well samples had 0.38 mean log10MPN fewer E. coli and 0.38 mean log 10MPN fewer thermotolerant, compared to latrines without sand barriers, a reduction of 27% E. coli and 24% thermotolerant coliforms mean counts. A sand barrier can modestly reduce the risk presented by pit leaching.

Bacterial Contamination on Latrine Surfaces in Community and Household Latrines in Kathmandu, Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, January 2019.
Results found almost no differences between bacterial contamination on latrine surfaces in community and household latrines, with the exception of latrine slabs/seats that were more contaminated in the community latrines under dirty conditions. The study also identified surfaces with higher levels of contamination. Findings demonstrated that well-maintained community latrines may be as clean, or cleaner, than household latrines and support the use of community latrines.

Development and validation protocol for an instrument to measure household water insecurity across cultures and ecologies: The Household Water InSecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale. BMJ Open, January 2019.
There is no validated tool to measure individual- or household-level water insecurity equivalently across varying cultural and ecological settings. Accordingly, we are developing the Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale to measure household-level water insecurity in multiple contexts.

REPORTS

The Global Risks Report 2019. World Economic Forum, January 2019.
Environmental risks continue to dominate the results of our annual Global Risks Perception Survey (GRPS).

An Introduction to Community Engagement in WASH. OXFAM, 2018.
The principles and approaches described here are relevant in other programmes and sectors too, but the target audience for this guide is WASH staff in humanitarian programmes – especially those responsible for designing, implementing and monitoring public health promotion activities.

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