Emergency WASH Update, November 15, 2018

The next biweekly update will contain recent studies and resources on Fecal Sludge Management so please send any studies or reports that should be featured.

ANNOUNCEMENTS

Research Assistant: CLEAR and Wash’em – London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: We are seeking to appoint a Research Assistant to support research on hygiene and sanitation in the Environmental Health Group. The successful applicant will have a MSc in a relevant field; experience in conducting research in low and middle-income countries or in humanitarian contexts. Closing Date: Thursday 22 November 2018.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Individual and Household Risk Factors for Symptomatic Cholera Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Infect Dis, November 2018.
We identified potential risk factors for symptomatic cholera infection including environmental characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and intrinsic patient factors. Ultimately, a combination of interventional approaches targeting various groups with risk-adapted intensities may prove to be the optimal strategy for cholera control.

Global Cholera Epidemiology: Opportunities to Reduce the Burden of Cholera by 2030. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 2018.
While safe drinking water and advanced sanitation systems have made the Global North cholera-free for decades, the disease still affects 47 countries across the globe resulting in an estimated 2.86 million cases and 95,000 deaths per year worldwide.

Household Water Treatment and Cholera Control. J Infect Dis. 2018, Sept 2018.
Overall, a moderate quality of evidence suggests that HWT interventions reduce the burden of disease in cholera outbreaks and the risk of disease transmission. Appropriate training for users and community health worker follow-up are necessary for use. Barriers to uptake include taste and odor concerns, and facilitators include prior exposure, ease of use, and links to preexisting development programming.

A Metagenomic Approach to Evaluating Surface Water Quality in Haiti. Int J Environ Res Public Health, October 2018.
These results indicate a metagenomic approach to evaluating water samples can be useful for source tracking and the surveillance of pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae over time, as well as for monitoring virulence factors such as cholera toxin.

Building Local Capacity in Hand-Rub Solution Production during the 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak Disaster: The Case of Liberia and Guinea. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, November 2018.
The project demonstrated that it was feasible to build local capacity in alcohol-based hand-rub solution production during an emergency and in limited-resource settings when materials and training are provided. Future programs in similar contexts should identify and address the factors of sustainability during the implementation phase and provide regular, long-term technical support.

Laboratory Efficacy and Disinfection by-Product Formation of a Coagulant/Disinfectant Tablet for Point-of-Use Water Treatment. Water, November 2018.
Coagulant/disinfection products (CDPs) are a point-of-use (POU) water treatment technique that can improve microbial quality, reduce turbidity, and produce a free chlorine residual (FCR), serving as a potentially effective option for decentralized water treatment in a variety of contexts, including humanitarian emergencies.

REPORTS

Vibrio cholerae and Cholera biotypes. Global Water Pathogen Project, October 2018.
This chapter aims to provide the reader with a broad understanding of recent discoveries of V. cholerae and new recombinant V. cholerae biotypes and an outlook toward future developments.

NEWS/BLOGS

Gathering Feedback on MSR’s Household Water Treatment System. ELHRA, November 2018. MSR’s HWTS consists of two stacked reservoirs separated by a two-stage filter. A hybrid of two technologies, the two-stage filter combines ceramic filtration and chlorine treatment—ceramic for filtering out parasites, bacteria and particulate; and chlorine for eliminating viruses.

Global Task Force on Cholera Control marks a year of progress toward ending cholera worldwide. UNICEF, October 2018.
This month, partners of the Global Task Force on Cholera Control mark one year since the launch of Ending Cholera: A Global Roadmap to 2030, which targets a 90% reduction in cholera deaths by 2030 and the elimination of cholera in at least 20 countries out of the 47 currently affected.

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