Mapping the evidence on WASH promotion in communities, schools and health facilities. 3ie Impact, August 2018.
- The number of rigorous studies on WASH promotion in households, schools and communities has increased substantially.
- Very few rigorous studies exist on WASH promotion in medical facilities.
- Many new studies evaluate previously under-researched approaches, such as community-led total sanitation, and measure important sector outcomes, including school attendance and reducing open defecation.
- More studies are needed to measure programme effects on the sustained use of technologies and slippage back to open defecation.
- A critical need exists for studies on promotional approaches for vulnerable populations, especially people living with disabilities, for whom no studies are available. New, high-quality systematic reviews are available, including ones on the effectiveness of hygiene and sanitation behavioural approaches and menstrual hygiene management.
- Synthesis gaps remain for high-quality reviews on WASH interventions in schools and on decentralised delivery