Recent research on sanitation,shared latrines, handwashing and other WASH issues

Below are links to an interesting report from the Rockefeller Foundation and other recently published journal articles and blogs:

Sanitation in the Context of Planetary Health: Opportunities and Challenges. Rockefeller Foundation, July 2018. Poor sanitation is a factor in an estimated 80% of all environment-related deaths. Poor sanitation costs countries between 0.5 and 7.2% of their annual GDP. The World Health Organization estimated total global economic losses to be US$260 billion annually in 2012. Investment in sanitation returns an estimated US$5-16 for every US$1 spen

OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL ARTICLES

Children Are Exposed to Fecal Contamination via Multiple Interconnected Pathways: A Network Model for Exposure Assessment. Risk Analysis, July 2018. This article describes a dynamic, multipathway exposure assessment model for children under five years of age in crowded, highly contaminated urban environments. Models of varying environmental concentrations of fecal microbes, child behaviors, and a comprehensive set of exposure factors were combined to simulate microbe transfer in a network structure from environmental sources to human ingestion.

Shared latrines in Maputo, Mozambique: exploring emotional well-being and psychosocial stress. BMC International Health and Human Rights, July 25.  Our data suggest that “improved”, shared facilities can reduce stress when proper maintenance and management systems are in place. Private, shared sanitation only had limited impact on users’ perceptions of safety, particularly at night, suggesting that safety concerns extend beyond the physical latrine structure. Our research demonstrates that factors including latrine location and neighborhood violence are important determinants of safety perceptions and corresponding psychosocial stress.

AJTMH Series on Typhoid

Introductory Article on Global Burden and Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever. AJTMH, July 25. This article is the introduction to a 12-paper supplement on global trends in typhoid fever. The Tackling Typhoid (T2) project was initiated in 2015 to synthesize the existing body of literature on typhoidal salmonellae and study national and regional typhoid fever trends.

Selected articles in the series

 

ABSTRACT/ORDER

Social Influence on Handwashing with Soap: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Bangladesh. AJTMH, July 30. Our study supports the conclusion that the presence of another individual after a toileting event can positively impact HWWS in a primary school setting.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene practices mediate the association between women’s empowerment and child length‐for‐age z‐scores in Nepal. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 26 July 2018. Empowered women had better WASH practices than nonempowered women, which translated into higher child LAZ. Child DD was not a mediating factor in the association between women’s empowerment and child LAZ. More research is needed to explore other pathways by which women’s empowerment may affect child nutrition outcomes.

BLOGS

Reaching for Resilience in East Africa. New Security Beat, July 2018. “Resilience isn’t an outcome, it is a process—and capacity-building is crucial,” said Chelsea Keyser, Deputy Chief of Party for USAID’s PREPARED program, during a recent event at the Wilson Center marking the end of the five-year project. PREPARED (Planning for Resilience in East Africa Through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development) developed 14 different tools to help communities adapt to the impacts of the changing environment in the East African region, including unreliable rainfall and rising temperatures.

Clean water for the residents of one of Africa’s largest rubbish dumps. WSUP, July 24. The DFID funded programme operated under a payment by results framework, which meant that WSUP had to make good use of its strong relationship with NCWSC to ensure it could achieve the demanding targets.

Can Flexible Funding Lead to Better and Longer Lasting Results When it Comes to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions? By Susan Davis, July 2018. Improve International convened a group of 14 people for the 3rd gathering of the Funder Collective for More Effective Partnerships. Over coffee, they met or got re-acquainted. Then representatives of three different types of funders – the Stone Family Foundation, Vitol Foundation, and Viva con Agua — talked about their take on a similar topic: Can flexible funding lead to better and longer lasting results when it comes to water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions?

Ingenious upcycling turns discarded medical device into water filter. Israel21c, July 29. Israeli startup repurposes discarded kidney dialysis filters to make pure water in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

 

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