An Examination of CLTS’s Contributions Toward Universal Sanitation

Pleased to share a new report from USAID for dissemination: An Examination of CLTS’s Contributions Toward Universal Sanitation.

This review of scientific and gray literature related to community-led total sanitation (CLTS) assesses the knowledge base on best practices and identifies evidence gaps.  It was prepared for USAID by the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) project under Task Order number AID-OAA-TO-16-00016 of the Water and Development Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contract (WADI), contract number AID-OAA-I-14-00068.

This review offers a description of the CLTS intervention, tracing its evolution in theory and practice from Southeast Asia to its current place as a global phenomenon, and explores the open defecation free (ODF) concept, analyzing its strengths and weaknesses.

It highlights the disconnect between the independent monitoring and analysis of CLTS program results and internal performance reports released by implementing organizations and their donors. This review also seeks to assess circumstances in which CLTS works best, the most promising implementation modalities, and instances where CLTS may not be suitable.

This literature review was made possible by contributions from Jeff Albert, Valentina Zuin, Rachel Peletz, Caroline Delaire, and Ranjiv Khush (Aquaya Institute); Morris Israel and Jonathan Annis (Tetra Tech); Joe Brown (Georgia Institute of Technology); Marion (Mimi) Jenkins (University of California, Davis); and Aditi Krishna and Hannah Taukobong (Iris Group).

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