WASHplus Weekly: Lessons Learned in Sanitation

Issue 211 | Oct. 23, 2015 | Lessons Learned in Sanitation

This issue includes studies and resources on lessons learned and innovative approaches in sanitation. Included are a UNICEF learning series, recent studies from USAID, and studies on fecal sludge management, urban sanitation, hygiene, and behavior change.


UNICEF East and Southern Africa Region Sanitation and Hygiene Learning SeriesLink
This series is designed to improve knowledge of best practice and lessons learned in sanitation and hygiene programming across the region. The series has been funded in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in support of improved knowledge management in the sanitation sector.  Field notes, technical briefs, and journal articles are written by practitioners for practitioners and should encourage adoption of innovative or new approaches and technologies within the region and contribute to scaling up access to sanitation and hygiene for the most under-served.

Documents included in the series are:


USAID/West Africa Sanitation Service Delivery – Making Kumasi a Cleaner City.PSIIMPACT, Sept 2015. D Ward. Link
Dana Ward, PSI country representative in Ghana and chief of party for Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) Project in Ghana, Benin, and Cote d’Ivoire interviewed Anthony Mensah, director, Waste Management Department Kumasi Metropolitan Authority, about the city’s strategy to make Kumasi among the five cleanest cities in Africa. WASHPlus_HTMLbanner_weekly_600x159

Water and Sanitation Assistance: USAID Has Increased Strategic Focus but Should Improve Monitoring, 2015. GAO. Link
The U.S. Government Accountability Office recommends that USAID take steps to improve monitoring and reporting of WASH activities by identifying and addressing reasons for Missions’ inconsistent adherence with Agency guidance. USAID generally concurred with the recommendations and, in particular, outlined steps it is taking to address the report’s second recommendation.


Innovative Tools for Sanitation Capacity Mapping and Planning in Kenya, 2015. Water and Sanitation Program. Link
Lack of capacity is a major bottleneck that hinders progress in achieving access to sanitation. The Water and Sanitation Program has developed and tested a set of practical tools designed to support clients at the local level as they plan, build, and sustain sanitation capacity.

Innovative WASH Interventions to Prevent Cholera. Wkly Epidem Rec, Aug 2015. D Lantagne. Link
Lessons learned from the programs described in this report are similar: WASH interventions can successfully improve water quality, isolate feces from the environment, and reduce the potential for cholera transmission if they are wisely implemented and distributed with appropriate supplies and training to at-risk populations.

What Are the Biggest Barriers for WASH Innovators? 2015. T Do, WASH Impact Network. Link
The WASH sector is a highly fragmented field, but one that has great potential for innovation to improve people’s health and lives. There is ample evidence that the best solutions to challenges in the developing world are being designed by innovators and entrepreneurs that live within those communities. But these local organizations face numerous barriers. The Results for Development Institute wants to better understand the shared barriers across the WASH sector, and how to support organizations in overcoming them.


Improving On-Site Sanitation and Connections to Sewers in Southeast Asia: Insights from Indonesia and Vietnam, 2015. Water and Sanitation Program. Link
Households want to connect to sewers and improve their on-site sanitation for communitywide benefits but cannot connect for technical reasons or do not receive timely information. Unclear institutional arrangements and poor coordination causes gaps in management and planning, under-utilized investments, construction delays, and difficulties with asset handover.

Community Driven Sanitation in Namibia, 2015. SHARE. Video
This video reports on a SHARE-supported project in Namibia that saw a community savings group organize to link its community to the sewerage lines, creating the necessary infrastructure for safe, hygienic sanitation. So far, across Namibia, 185 households have installed sanitation services in five settlements, 110 households are currently installing in two settlements, and five towns are preparing for project implementation.

Changing Mind Sets for City-Wide Sanitation, IRC Blog, Sept 2015. I Krukkert. Link
The whole system – what does it mean? Ensuring safe sanitation facilities for everyone, everywhere, and all the time is a simple phrase. To make this actually happen, one has to look at the whole system in which sanitation service delivery takes place: all the elements of the sanitation chain need to be looked at: from containment and transport, to treatment and safe disposal, and re-use. And even this will not be successful if the operational side is not backed by well-functioning institutions. If all stakeholders dealing with sanitation service delivery continue with business as usual, nothing will change.

Co-producing Inclusive City-Wide Sanitation Strategies: Lessons from Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe. Env & Urbanization, Apr 2015. E Banana. Link
This paper explores how communities in Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, have used community-led mapping and enumerations to build partnerships with local government to support the development and co-production of innovative pro-poor, citywide sanitation strategies as part of the SHARE City-Wide Sanitation project.


Developing Business Models for Fecal Sludge Management in Maputo, 2015. P Hawkins, Water and Sanitation Program. Link
An analysis of fecal waste flows in Maputo shows that only 3 percent of the total fecal waste produced actually passes through the treatment plant, while more than 50 percent contaminates backyards, the drainage system, and Maputo Bay.

Faecal Sludge Management in Peri-Urban Malawi: Investigating the Policy Gaps, 2015. D Niyirenda. Link
This paper was produced for the 38th WEDC Conference held in Loughborough in July 2015. It builds on a SHARE-funded study that explored fecal sludge management in Mzuzu, Malawi.

Fecal Sludge Management Program: Lessons Learned, 2014. M Mbéguéré. Link
From sludge collection to treatment and recovery through transportation, various tools have been developed and tested since the start of the program less than three years ago. These tools include the provision of adapted toilets for people living in flood-prone areas, the organization of the demand for emptying services through the call center, certification as a business organization tool, the guarantee fund as an instrument for the renewal of emptying trucks, and a communications package.


Making WASH Behaviour Stick. Evidence Matters, Sept 2015. R Menon. Link
A recent impact evaluation mines through 44 studies to come up with a host of contextual, psychosocial, and technological factors that can affect sustained use of WASH practices and technologies. As is the case with toilets, just providing water treatment technologies does not automatically lead to a change in behavior.

Monitoring Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural Ethiopia: A Diagnostic Analysis of Systems, Tools and Capacity, 2015. O Jones, Water and Sanitation Program. Link
For the first time, this report brings together an analysis of the multiple monitoring systems that have been developed by the WASH sector ministries. The report aims to systematically analyze the evolution of the systems, tools, and capacity in place to capture and analyze sanitation- and hygiene-related monitoring data.

Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion in Madagascar, 2015. WSSCC. Link
In rural Madagascar, CLTS is the preferred approach for eliminating open defecation, and these actions also drive overall improvements in sanitation and hygiene. CLTS focuses on igniting change in sanitation and hygiene behavior within whole communities, rather than constructing toilets through subsidies.


6 Ways to Strengthen Consumer Voice in Water and Sanitation Sector through ICT Platforms. World Bank Water Blog, Oct 2015. N Fdaw. Link
The experiences and lessons learned from this study indicate the six key ways to support the design and implementation of ICT tools to strengthen consumer voice and citizen engagement in the water and sanitation sector.

Ensuring Sustainability of Non-Networked Sanitation Technologies: An Approach to Standardization. Env Sci Tech, May 2015. M Starkl. Link
Non-networked sanitation technologies use no sewer, water, or electricity lines. Based on a review of 45 commercially distributed technologies, 12 (representing three concepts) were selected for a detailed audit. They were located in six countries of Africa and Asia. To promote further development and give producers of mature products a competitive advantage, the paper proposes a certification of technologies to confirm the fulfillment of basic requirements to make them attractive for future users.

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