Incontinence and WASH Focusing on people in humanitarian and low- and middle-income contexts

Incontinence and WASH: Focusing on people in humanitarian and low- and middle-income contexts

Incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine and/or faeces

People of any gender, age or ability can experience incontinence: they cannot hold on to their urine and/or faeces (‘the involuntary loss of urine or faeces’), and need to manage their urine and/or faeces leaking out. Leakage can occur at any time, day or night (commonly referred to in children as ‘bedwetting’). Incontinence has a significant impact on the quality of life of life of those who experience it, and that of their family members and carers: incontinence

The children (in Zaatari refugee camp, Jordon) are really suffering. The problem is that the mothers have been trying to cope for so long that basically they’ve given up. Night after night of urine and they can’t keep them clean. It’s soul-destroying (Venema, 2015)

Members of an informal email group on incontinence in humanitarian and development settings* have identified a lack of acknowledgement and support for people with incontinence. In response the group has been developing tools and collating resources to enable development and humanitarian professionals to create a supportive environment for people in low- and middle-income countries to manage their incontinence hygienically, safely, in privacy and with dignity.

We have identified that anyone who experiences incontinence has increased water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) needs compared to the rest of the population. WASH-related tools and resources have been collated on this webpage to help improve the knowledge and practices of the WASH sector

Read the complete article.

WASH Training and Educational Events and Resources (updated August 19, 2019)

WASH Training and Educational Events and Resources (updated August 19, 2019)

Sources to check

  • CAWST
  • Coursera MOOC
  • Global Water Partnership (GWP)
  • International Water Association (IWA)
  • International Water Centre 
  • IRC
  • Mzuzu University (Malawi)
  • UNC Water Institute
  • UNDP Cap-Net
  • UNESCO-IHE (Delft)
  • UN SDG Academy
  • Institut International de l’Eau – 2iE (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso) – will add asap
  • Asian Institute of Technology – AIT (Bangkok, Thailand) – will add asap
  • WEDC
  • Globalwaters.orgtraining courses and resources.
  • Others???

CENTRE FOR AFFORDABLE WATER AND SANITATION TECHNOLOGY (CAWST)

  • Training Workshops – Delivered by CAWST and its local training partners. Designed for WASH managers, government staff, field workers and community workers.

COURSERA ONLINE COURSES

Global Water Partnership (GWP)

  • Pan-Africa Training on International Water Law and Water Governance – Improved Transboundary Water Investment in Africa – GWP is organising a training on Water Governance and International Water Law (IWL) in Africa together with partner organisations. The training takes place in Kampala, Uganda, 11-14 November 2019. The deadline to apply is 6 September.

IRC

WASH Systems Academy – A dynamic online platform to assist WASH sector professionals in applying a WASH systems strengthening approach. Interactive, engaging and free—the WASH Systems Academy makes driving for change for this human right fun and available to all. Listen to podcasts, watch animations, connect with others in the forums, create your own materials and much more! Watch this video to see what the academy has to offer:

  •  WASH systems strengthening – From 16th September to 27th September 2019 the free basic course ‘WASH systems strengthening: the basics’ will be available on the WASH Systems Academy. The basic course takes on average 16 hours and is to be completed in 2 weeks. At the end of the course, you will understand the WASH systems strengthening approach. The course contains the key concepts of the approach and has cases and examples where the approach is used. This course is also available in October 2019 and November 2019.

International Water Association (IWA)

International Water Centre – We were founded in 2005 with the vision of harnessing the diverse expertise of the world’s leading water professionals, to educate and empower individuals, communities and organizations, to build capacity to respond to water challenges in innovative ways. Some of its online courses include:

  • Introduction to WASH for development, starts September 16, 2019 – This online course will provide those starting their career or preparing for project work in the WASH sector with the fundamental principles and approaches to better engage and support efforts to work towards achieving SDG6. Cost: $548.00 
  • Water reform and governance, starts August 20, 2020 – In this online course, we will explore these questions and draw on practical examples to demonstrate how water reform processes are successful when they are context driven, inclusive of direct and indirect users of water, take a whole-of-water-cycle approach to reform, and deeply consider multiple societal outcomes. Cost: $648.00

Continue reading

Emergency WASH Biweekly Update, August 15, 2019

Dear Colleagues:

Below are recent Emergency WASH-related studies, reports and blog posts. We received a suggestion to include more general WASH-related research in the biweekly updates and CKM does distribute a Weekly WASH Research Update, August 12, 2019 so just let me know if you would like to subscribe to the weekly research updates.

WEBINARS

Water as a Tool for Resilience in Times of Crisis – Water security professionals discussed the latest thinking about water’s impact on fragile regions in a recent panel discussion. The panel included Basil Mahayni of the USAID-funded Sustainable Water Partnership; Cynthia Brady, formerly of USAID; David De Armey of Water for Good, an international NGO; Abigail Jones of USAID; and Erika Weinthal of Duke University.

REPORTS eehh

How to design handwashing facilities that change behavior. Wash’Em, August 2019. There are several reasons why handwashing facilities can have an important effect on behavior.

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 report and presentations, August 2019. This event report covers the 9th Emergency Environmental Health Forum which was held on 17-18 June 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. The theme of the conference was ‘Disease Outbreaks and Their Control’.

Guidance on market based programming for humanitarian WASH practitioners. Global WASH Cluster, 2019. How market based programming can complement and improve WASH programming; How to conduct a WASH market assessment

Continue reading

Faeces to fertiliser: innovations to solve the world’s toilets crisis

Faeces to fertiliser: innovations to solve the world’s toilets crisis. SciDev, July 2019.

Speed read

  • Pit latrines still best for regions without sewage systems
  • Improvements include membranes to collect faeces and dry flushes to save water
  • Community buy-in crucial to toilet innovation success

With nearly 1.4 billion people still lacking access to even the most basic toilet, researchers around the world are looking for innovative solutions, writes Inga Vesper.

First, some good news. Since the year 2000, the number of people forced to defecate in the open has fallen by more than half to an estimated 673 million. However, 2 billion people still lack basic sanitation services, with more than 700 million relying on rudimentary holes or pits, a World Health Organization (WHO) report showed last month. scidev

The problem is concentrated on around 60 high-burden countries, mostly in Africa and Asia, where water is scarce and infrastructure — such as sewer systems and water treatment plants — can be difficult to maintain. Open defecation is widely practised in some countries, but it is not a suitable alternative. It contaminates food and water through flies and can be dangerous to girls and women, as it forces them to seek out isolated spots away from their homes.

But changing toilet practices is surprisingly difficult. “It’s something quite intimate,” says Rémi Kaupp, a sanitation engineer for the UK-based charity WaterAid. “People don’t want governments or agencies to impose what kind of toilet they have in their home. What they want is someone to deal with the aftermath.”

Read the complete article.

Wash’Em – How to design handwashing facilities that change behaviour

How to design handwashing facilities that change behaviour. WASH’Em, August 2019.

In a crisis, humanitarians are often responsible for providing or repairing handwashing infrastructure for the affected population. This creates an opportunity for us to build infrastructure and provide products which encourage people to practice handwashing with soap. washem-logo

Why are handwashing facilities important?
Did you know that having a handwashing facility makes you 50% more likely to wash your hands? If it is conveniently placed near the toilet or kitchen and has soap and water available, then people are up to 80% more likely to practice handwashing.

There are several reasons why handwashing facilities can have an important effect on behaviour. Imagine you are leaving the toilet. If you see a handwashing facility, this is likely to act as a trigger, reminding you to wash your hands. If you don’t see a handwashing facility you might get distracted with other things and forget to wash hands.

Even if you did want to wash your hands where there was no handwashing facility present, you would probably have to go to a lot more effort to walk to somewhere that has soap and water. In the process you may touch and contaminate lots of other
surfaces.

Often the level of effort required would act as a barrier to regular handwashing.
As humanitarians it is unethical and a waste of resources to do hygiene promotion if handwashing facilities, soap and water are not readily available to the population. In the acute phase of a crisis, handwashing infrastructure and products must be our first priority.

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 report and presentations

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 Report

  • Acknowledgements
  • Executive Summary eehh
  • Opening address
  • Key Note Speech: Disease outbreaks and their control
  • Panel Discussion: Capacity of the WASH Sector in epidemic and pandemic response
  • Plenary 1: Cholera – prevention and preparedness
  • Plenary 2: Handwashing, acceptability of interventions and community engagement
  • Plenary 3: Cholera – control and containment of outbreaks
  • Plenary 4: Hepatitis E and vector control
  • Plenary 5: Faecal sludge management and sanitation
    Plenary 6: Household water treatment and safe storage

Emergency Environmental Health Forum 2019 Presentations

USAID Updates | Aug 2019 WASH research | Blog updates

USAID UPDATES

USAID Participation at Stockholm World Water Week 2019 – USAID sessions this year will cover topics ranging from the role of women in water leadership to promoting self-reliance through financing of water and sanitation services to building resilient water and food systems. armenia

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Effect of in-line drinking water chlorination at the point of collection on child diarrhoea in urban Bangladesh: a double-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Global Health, Sept 2019. Passive chlorination at the point of collection could be an effective and scalable strategy in low-income urban settings for reducing child diarrhea and for achieving global progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 to attain universal access to safe and affordable drinking water.

Experiences of capacity strengthening in sanitation and hygiene research in Africa and Asia: the SHARE Research Consortium. Health Research Policy and Systems, Aug 2019. Strategies that yielded success were learning by doing (supporting institutions and postgraduate students on sanitation and hygiene research), providing fellowships to appoint mid-career scientists to support personal and institutional development, and supporting tailored capacity-building plans.

Toward Complementary Food Hygiene Practices among Child Caregivers in Rural Malawi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 7 Aug. Selected contextual (i.e., presence of handwashing facility, locally made dish rack and ownership of animals) and psychosocial factors which include normative, ability, and self-regulation (remembering) factors have been identified as strong predictors for the success of an intervention that focuses on washing of utensils with soap, keeping of utensils on an elevated place, and hand washing with soap at critical times.

Broad approaches to cholera control in Asia: Water, sanitation and handwashing. Vaccine, Aug 2. Household interventions only marginally reduce cholera risk. Water and sanitation infrastructure provides multiple benefits. New approaches and institutional flexibility needed to address cholera.

The future of groundwater in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature, Aug 7. An analysis of aquifer replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa shows that reduced precipitation does not always deplete groundwater reserves, challenging the idea that these reserves will decrease in response to global warming.

REPORTS

What Proportion Counts? Disaggregating Access to Safely Managed Sanitation in an Emerging Town in Tanzania. Preprints, Aug 6. This study demonstrates the possibility of using simple survey tools to collect reliable data for monitoring progress towards safely managed sanitation in the towns of global south.

Monitoring Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Measuring Progress for Girls related to Menstruation Meeting Report. Columbia University and WSSCC, 2019. Overall, findings highlight the complexity of addressing menstruation in societies around the world that have ongoing menstrual restrictions and taboos that are relevant for the design of interventions.

Running Dry: Tackling the myths about urban water and sanitation. WSUP, July 2019. WSUP has identified five myths which are stopping investors, agencies and policymakers from properly addressing the inadequate access to essential water and sanitation services in cities across Africa and South Asia.

BLOG POSTS

Reflections on a Review of Studies on the Physical and Emotional Toll of Carrying Water. Engineering for Change, Aug 1. UNC’s review includes takeaways for developing strategies to meet the challenge of water provision. The health problems associated with water carriage can only be eliminated if all households have water on premises, which is one of the parameters of ‘safely managed’ water called for under the Sustainable Development Goals. In areas where water fetching must continue, strategies should focus on reducing the distance to water sources, providing alternatives to carrying water on the head, such as wheelbarrows, and eliminating gender-based violence

For street vendors, finding water and toilets isn’t just a nuisance, it’s cutting into earnings. IIED, Aug 7. Guest blogger Carlin Carr argues that providing street vendors access to safe, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene resources benefits not just sellers, but the wider community too.

Rooted in Research, Handwashing Stations Designed to Encourage Kids to Wash Their Hands. WASHfunders, Aug 2019.

DATA SOURCES

World Resources Institute Aqueduct 3.0 Country Rankings – This dataset shows countries and provinces’ average exposure to six of Aqueduct 3.0’s water risk indicators: baseline water stress, riverine flood risk, and drought risk. Scores are also available for all industrial, agricultural, and domestic users’ average exposure to each indicator in each country and province basin.