WASH research on CLTS, latrines, menstrual hygiene, food hygiene, etc.

In addition to the studies and reports listed below, recent updates to Globalwaters.org include:

JOURNAL ARTICLES eehh

How does Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) promote latrine construction, and can it be improved? A cluster-randomized controlled trial in Ghana. Social Science & Medicine, 2 December 2019. Authors: Miriam Harter, Jennifer Inauen, Hans-JoachimMosler – CLTS increased latrine coverage by 67.6%. CLTS achieved changes in psychosocial determinants based on a psychosocial model.

Costs and Willingness to Pay for Pit Latrine Emptying Services in Kigali, Rwanda. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, November 2019. Authors: Zachary Burt, Rachel Sklar and Ashley Murray – Our results show that households had strong preferences for fecal sludge (FS) treatment, formalized services (which include worker protections), and distant disposal.

Infant Food Hygiene and Childcare Practices in Context: Findings from an Urban Informal Settlement in Kenya. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, November 18, 2019. Authors: Jane Awiti, Odhiambo Mumma, Oliver Cumming, Sheillah Simiyu, Alexandra Czerniewska, Rose Evalyne Aseyo, Damaris Nelima Muganda, Emily Davis, Kelly K. Baker and Robert Dreibelbis – Our findings demonstrate that behaviors associated with food contamination, such as hand feeding and storing food for extended periods, are determined largely by the larger social and economic realities of primary caretakers. Data also show how caregiving within an informal settlement is highly dynamic and involves multiple individuals and locations throughout the day.

Economic cost analysis of low-cost sanitation technology options in informal settlement areas (case study: Soweto, Johannesburg). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, January 2020. Authors: Musa Manga, Jamie Bartram, Barbara E.Evans – The study revealed that simplified sewerage is the cheapest option for Soweto informal settlement, even when the costs of pumping and treatment are included.

Gendered Water Insecurity: A Structural Equation Approach for Female Headed Households in South Africa. Water, November 2019. Authors: Saul Ngarava, Leocadia Zhou, Nomakhaya Monde – The study concludes that there are dynamic relationships in water insecurity (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) for female-headed households in South Africa.

Resilience by design: A deep uncertainty approach for water systems in a changing world. Water Security, April 2020. Resilience by Design is a generalizable approach offering important new methods of planning and managing for the resilience of critical infrastructure.

REPORTS

Health, Safety and Dignity of Sanitation Workers: An Initial Assessment. World Bank, November 2019.

Measurement in the study of menstrual health and hygiene: A systematic review and audit, November 2019. Authors: Julie Hennegan, Deborah Jordan, Brooks Kellogg, J. Schwab G.J. Melendez-Torres. Results of this audit indicate the need for the development and validation of new measures, and the evaluation of the performance of existing measures across contexts. In particular, the definition and measurement of menstrual practices, knowledge, attitudes, norms and restrictions should be addressed.

BLOGS

Channeling Financial Flows for Urban Water and Sanitation. CSIS Briefs. November 27, 2019. Through development agencies like USAID and OPIC, the United States can leverage additional private capital and increase the efficiency of existing water and sanitation programs.

Glass Half Full? Innovative Technologies Could Increase Global Water Security. New Security Beat, November 21, 2019. This article is part of ECSP’s Water Security for a Resilient World series, a partnership with USAID’s Sustainable Water Partnership and Winrock International to share stories about global water security.

New SHARE research on handwashing, food hygiene, position paper on the WASH Benefits and SHINE studies

Bruce Gordon and Oliver Subasinghe on the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report

In the latest USAID Global Waters Radio podcast, hear the World Health Organization’s Bruce Gordon, one of the creators of the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report, share key takeaways from this year’s data, collected from more than 100 countries. podcast

As we move closer to 2030, how are countries doing in their pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals for water and sanitation?

Click below to give a listen to this important progress report, and feel free to share with interested colleagues.

Link to the podcast.

 

Globalwaters.org updates | New WHO, WSUP reports | WASH research updates

Recent updates to Globalwaters.org

Bruce Gordon and Oliver Subasinghe on the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report – The latest podcast from Global Waters Radio features a conversation with Bruce Gordon, Coordinator for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization (WHO), and Oliver Subasinghe, Communications and Data Advisor with the USAID Water Office.

Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

DESIGNING VIABLE SANITATION ENTERPRISES – A MARKET BASED SANITATION GAME – USAID/WASHPaLS developed a game called Designing Viable Sanitation Enterprises to serve as a tool for MBS practitioners to understand and appreciate the interactions between the elements of a sanitation enterprise, the entrepreneur, and the broader context.

USAID Seeks Input on its Water and Development Research Agenda – To take advantage of the concentrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)–sector knowledge represented at the 2019 University of North Carolina Water and Health Conference, we held a consultation designed to share our process in developing a research agenda.

USAID in the News – Cambodia – Stone Family Foundation, IDE and USAID Launch Sanitation Development Impact Bond.

Reports

Watering the NDCs: National Climate Planning for 2020 and Beyond. AGWA, 2019. Watering the NDCs provides guiding principles and recommendations for national climate planners and decision-makers to help ensure they meet their goals set out in National Adaptation Plans and Nationally Determined Contributions.

Safer water, better health. WHO, 2019. This high disease burden could be largely prevented with existing interventions and prevention strategies, which are described in this report.

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Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice – WHO/UNICEF position paper

Implications of recent WASH and nutrition studies for WASH policy and practice – WHO/UNICEF position paper, November 2019. Children wash their hands outside school in Samabogo, Mali.

The WHO/UNICEF position paper summarizes the studies, contextualizes the findings within the wider body of evidence and distills the implications for future investments. The paper is accompanied by a recorded interview with the heads of WASH for WHO and UNICEF and the lead author of a consensus statement from leading researchers.

An excerpt – What are the implications for WASH programming?

The findings of WASH Benefits and SHINE are not a reason to do less on WASH. Conversely, the historical significance of WASH in disease control, the strong conceptual basis for WASH (Box 2) and the need for WASH to reduce the potential for outbreaks in addition to breaking endemic transmission all indicate that the WASH sector collectively needs to do more and better to reach the ambitious targets of the SDGs.

The findings also highlight blind spots in typical WASH programming – particularly the role of animal waste and fecal contamination of food during irrigation and food preparation that are often overlooked in WASH programme design.

Many have called for transformative WASH In response to the studies but with some ambiguity around what is meant. While the consensus is that this implies interventions that lead to a comprehensively clean environment (Box 1), the path to this result is not universally agreed.

Impact of Early Life Exposure to Environments with Unimproved Sanitation on Education Outcomes: Evidence from Bangladesh

Impact of Early Life Exposure to Environments with Unimproved Sanitation on Education Outcomes: Evidence from Bangladesh. World Bank, November 2019.

Despite Bangladesh’s notable progress toward the eradication of open defecation, the country still faces severe deficits in the availability of improved sanitation. bank

This paper analyzes the impact of exposure to unimproved sanitation early in childhood on primary school enrollment status, using pseudo-panel data for children ages six to nine years in Bangladesh.

The results indicate that unimproved sanitation has a negative and significant impact on primary school enrollment. A child’s early exposure to unimproved sanitation decreases the likelihood of being enrolled in primary school by eight to ten percentage points on average compared with a child with access to improved sanitation.

The effect is particularly strong — a difference of 8 to 10 percentage points — for children ages six to seven. It is also strong in rural areas. The results are statistically robust to errors due to potential omitted variable bias.

Globalwaters.org updates | New reports | WASH research

Recent updates to Globalwaters.org

Bruce Gordon and Oliver Subasinghe on the 2019 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) Report – The latest podcast from Global Waters Radio features a conversation with Bruce Gordon, Coordinator for Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at the World Health Organization (WHO), and Oliver Subasinghe, Communications and Data Advisor with the USAID Water Office. 3-2-iDE-Cambodia WASH DIB-PR-07_Photo by Chhom Dinat

Designing Viable Sanitation Enterprises: A Market Based Sanitation Game – USAID/WASHPaLS developed a game called Designing Viable Sanitation Enterprises to serve as a tool for MBS practitioners to understand and appreciate the interactions between the elements of a sanitation enterprise, the entrepreneur, and the broader context.

USAID Seeks Input on its Water and Development Research Agenda – To take advantage of the concentrated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)–sector knowledge represented at the 2019 University of North Carolina Water and Health Conference, we held a consultation designed to share our process in developing a research agenda.

USAID in the News – Cambodia – Stone Family Foundation, IDE and USAID Launch Sanitation Development Impact Bond.

Reports

Watering the NDCs: National Climate Planning for 2020 and Beyond. AGWA, 2019. Watering the NDCs provides guiding principles and recommendations for national climate planners and decision-makers to help ensure they meet their goals set out in National Adaptation Plans and Nationally Determined Contributions.

Safer water, better health. WHO, 2019. This high disease burden could be largely prevented with existing interventions and prevention strategies, which are described in this report.

Continue reading