Biweekly WASH Research Update – March 4, 2021

This is the final WASH research update from the WCKM project, which was supported by the USAID’s RFS Center for Water Security, Sanitation and Hygiene. This update features new additions to the Globalwaters.org website, 18 recent studies, reports and webinars and we hope these updates have been useful to you.

Updates to Globalwaters.org

WASH Studies and Resources

COVID-19

Handwashing/Hygiene

Menstrual Hygiene and Health

Sanitation Issues

Water/WASH Issues

Investing in Menstrual Health and Hygiene

Leading global health organizations have unveiled a groundbreaking analysis outlining what donors, national governments, and the private sector need to invest to accelerate progress for menstrual health and hygiene (MHH). The report, Making the Case for Investing in Menstrual Health and Hygiene, is part of a growing effort to advance gender equality and contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

New Guides from the Sanitation Learning Hub

New Guides from the Sanitation Learning Hub
We are very pleased to announce three new Sanitation Learning Hub guides and the third edition of our handwashing compendium.

  • ‘Incontinence: We Need to Talk About Leaks’, Frontiers of Sanitation: Innovations and Insights 16
  • How to Talk About Incontinence: A Checklist
  • ‘Rapid Action Learning for Sanitation and Hygiene Programming’, Frontiers of Sanitation: Innovations and Insights 15
  • ‘Learning in the Sanitation and Hygiene Sector’, SLH Learning Brief 7
  • Handwashing Compendium for Low Resource Settings: A Living Document, Edition 3,

We hope that these resources are useful to you and your work. Please send any feedback to us at SLH@ids.ac.uk
 
Many good wishes,
Elaine Mercer, Sanitation Learning Hub

Nouveaux guides publiés par la Sanitation Learning Hub

Chères/Chers ami·e·s et collègues,

Nous sommes ravis de vous annoncer trois nouveaux guides publiés par la Sanitation Learning Hub et la troisième édition de notre Compendium sur le lavage des mains :

Nous espérons que ces ressources vous seront utiles et vous aideront dans vos travaux. Veuillez nous faire part de vos commentaires et suggestions : SLH@ids.ac.uk

Novos guias do Sanitation Learning Hub

Caros amigos e colegas,

Temos o prazer de anunciar quatro novos guias do Sanitation Learning Hub e a terceira edição do nosso compêndio de lavagem das mãos:

Esperamos que estes recursos sejam úteis, para si e para o seu trabalho. Envie-nos os comentários que possa ter SLH@ids.ac.uk

USAID Grant Opportunity – Rural Water Research & Learning

USAID Grant Opportunity – Rural Water Research & Learning

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Bureau for Resilience and Food Security (RFS) Center for Water Security, Sanitation and Hygiene is issuing this Draft Program Description for the purpose of providing stakeholders and potential partners an opportunity to review, comment, suggest, and enhance areas of a new global water research activity: the Rural Water Research & Learning Activity.

The purpose of this activity is to expand the evidence base for rural water supply and use of findings to inform rural water policy and programming in collaboration with partners, to increase the availability and sustainable management of safe water for the underserved and most vulnerable.

Link to grant documentation

Call for contributions: 42nd WEDC International Conference [online]

The call for contributions is now open for the 42nd WEDC International Conference: Equitable and Sustainable WASH Services: Future challenges in a rapidly changing world.

The Conference will be held online from 13-15 September 2021.

The conference comprises three days of online presentations and interactive discussions of peer-reviewed content; agency events from international organizations working in the sector; online exhibitions; and the opportunity for delegates to meet and network in virtual rooms.

Conference themes

  1. Climate change: weather extremes (e.g. floods and droughts) and water resources management, including but not limited to topics related to fundamental understanding, remote sensing, modelling and management strategies
  2. Integrating disaster risk management into WASH interventions
  3. Sanitation systems and services e.g. household and peri-urban approaches and faecal sludge management
  4. Rural water supply e.g. approaches to sustainability and serving the hardest to reach communities and households
  5. Groundwater resources
  6. Innovations and advances in biowaste, wastewater treatment and waste to energy technologies e.g. anaerobic digestion, composting, thermochemical processing, resource recovery and circular economy concepts; and end-use applications
  7. Urban water management
  8. Institutional development and programme management
  9. Data analytics, machine learning/AI applications in WASH

Call for contributions: http://wedc.lu/42-call-for-contributions

Menstrual hygiene management in schools: midway progress update on the “MHM in Ten” 2014–2024 global agenda

Menstrual hygiene management in schools: midway progress update on the “MHM in Ten” 2014–2024 global agenda. Health Research Policy and Systems, January 2021.

Progress has been made in recent years to bring attention to the challenges faced by school-aged girls around managing menstruation in educational settings that lack adequate physical environments and social support in low- and middle-income countries.

To enable more synergistic and sustained progress on addressing menstruation-related needs while in school, an effort was undertaken in 2014 to map out a vision, priorities, and a ten-year agenda for transforming girls’ experiences, referred to as Menstrual Hygiene Management in Ten (MHM in Ten).

The overarching vision is that girls have the information, support, and enabling school environment for managing menstruation with dignity, safety and comfort by 2024. This requires improved research evidence and translation for impactful national level policies.

As 2019 marked the midway point, we assessed progress made on the five key priorities, and remaining work to be done, through global outreach to the growing network of academics, non-governmental organizations, advocates, social entrepreneurs, United Nations agencies, donors, and national governments.

This paper delineates the key insights to inform and support the growing MHM commitment globally to maximize progress to reach our vision by 2024. Corresponding to the five priorities, we found that (priority 1) the evidence base for MHM in schools has strengthened considerably, (priority 2) global guidelines for MHM in schools have yet to be created, and (priority 3) numerous evidence-based advocacy platforms have emerged to support MHM efforts.

We also identified (priority 4) a growing engagement, responsibility, and ownership of MHM in schools among governments globally, and that although MHM is beginning to be integrated into country-level education systems (priority 5), resources are lacking.

Overall, progress is being made against identified priorities. We provide recommendations for advancing the MHM in Ten agenda. This includes continued building of the evidence, and expanding the number of countries with national level policies and the requisite funding and capacity to truly transform schools for all students and teachers who menstruate.

Promotion of low flush toilets in urban Mozambique from innovation idea to social enterprise

Infographic of the Biological Urban Sanitation project (BUSP) in Maputo

The Pia Fantastica toilet flushes with just one cup of water under an angle of 45 degrees and has no water seal. It has the convenience of a pedestal like a conventional ceramic toilet, and, if well installed, has no smell or fly problem. It is a toilet made out of concrete which can be produced for a price of just US$ 6.50 and is therefore attractive to the local sanitation market.

The Pia Fantastica was developed as part of the Biological Urban Sanitation Project (2016–2019) where Black Soldier Fly larvae were used for environmental friendly pit emptying.

The project has been translated into a social enterprise “Susamati” run by young professionals in Maputo, Mozambique. Setting up an enterprise is about building a team as well as marketing and sales. At this point, making a financially sustainable enterprise remains a challenge.

Annemarieke J. Mooijman, Yvette E. van Dok, Manuel Lélio A. Gungulo, Björn  Brandberg, Promotion of low flush toilets in urban Mozambique from innovation  idea to social enterprise, Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 116, 2021, Pages 287-291
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901120314167
Use this link for 50 day free access to full article.

Biweekly WASH research updates – January 4, 2021

This biweekly update contains the latest updates to Globalwaters.org as well as recent studies and reports handwashing, sanitation, WASH in schools, WASH in healthcare facilities, water supply issues and COVID-19 and WASH.

Updates to Globalwaters.org

Environmental Health

Using Feedback to Improve Accountability in Global Environmental Health and Engineering. Environ. Sci. Technol., December 2020. 

Handwashing/Hygiene

An assessment of availability of handwashing facilities in households from four East African countries. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. In press, 2020. 

Sanitation

Philippines: Can Subsidized Microloans Increase Toilet Ownership and Use for Poor Households? World Bank, November 2020. 

How Much Will Safe Sanitation for All Cost? Evidence from Five Cities. Environ. Sci. Technol., December 2020. (Abstract only for non-subscribers)

Cost effectiveness of community led total sanitation in Ethiopia and Ghana. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, March 2021. 

Water, Sanitation and the Risk of Chronic Conditions among Older Persons in Ghana: Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 2. African Population and Health Research Center, December 2020.

Modification of Major Contributors Responsible for Latrine Malodor on Exposure to Hypochlorous Acid: The Potential for Simultaneously Impacting Odor and Infection Hazards to Encourage Latrine Use. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, December 2020. 

Water Supply/Reuse

Evaluating self-reported measures and alternatives to monitor access to drinking water: A case study in Malawi. Science of The Total Environment, January 2021.

25 Years of Partnership with Karnataka: Evolving Model for Sustainable Urban Water Service Delivery. Asian Development Bank, December 2020. 

WASH for Women and Girls Fact Sheet. USAID, December 2020.

WASH for Women and Girls Fact Sheet. USAID, December 2020.

Through Water for the World, USAID increases access to sustainable water and sanitation services, promotes key hygiene behaviors, and enhances the effective management of water resources in developing countries.

USAID also elevates the status of women and girls to empower them as decision-makers and professionals in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector so they can lead the transformation of water and sanitation services in their own communities and countries.

Recent publications on Sustainable WASH Systems

Afar 2016
photo: Petterik Wiggers/Hollandse Hoogte Amsterdam

The Sustainable WASH Systems (SWS) learning partnership is a collaborative activity funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to develop, test, and document high-potential “systems approaches” for local water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) service delivery. The five year project (2016-2021) in Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda aims to provide concrete improvements to service delivery while placing a significant emphasis on building knowledge and providing evidence to USAID and the global WASH sector on how systems approaches can be applied, adapted, and scaled in different contexts.

Below are some of the most recent SWS publications:

Valcourt, N., Walters, J., Javernick-Will, A., Linden, K., and Hailegiorgis, B., 2020. Understanding rural water services as a complex system : an assessment of key factors as potential leverage points for improved service sustainability. Sustainability, 12(3), pp.1-17 : 3 fig., 3 tab.

Results from stakeholders workshops in Ethiopia and Uganda indicate that a more intentional focus on factor interactions in WASH systems could lead to more effective strategies for improving service sustainability.  Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/understanding-rural-water-services-complex-system-assessment-key-factors-potential

Hope, R., Thomson, P., Koehler, J. & Foster, T., 2020. Rethinking the economics of rural water in Africa. Oxford review of economic policy, 36(1), pp.171- 190 : 2 fig.

Why is rural water is different for communities, schools, and healthcare facilities across characteristics of scale, institutions, demand, and finance? Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/rethinking-economics-rural-water-africa

Hollander, D., Ajroud, B., Thomas, E., Peabody, S., Jordan, E., Javernick-Will, A. & Linden, K., 2020. Monitoring methods for systems-strengthening activities toward sustainable water and sanitation services in low-income settings. Sustainability, 12(17), pp.1-16 : 10 fig.

Early findings from the application of outcome mapping and system-wide assessments within the USAID-funded Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS) indicate the importance of including both within an overall monitoring approach to support systems strengthening of water and sanitation services. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/monitoring-methods-systems-strengthening-activities-toward-sustainable-water-and

University of Colorado Boulder. Environmental Incentives, 2020. Defining collective action approaches in WASH. (Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. Research brief). Washington, DC, USA: USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. 4 p. : 1 tab.

This research brief presents a definition of collective action approaches and a working typology of the range of related approaches. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/defining-collective-action-approaches-wash

Harper, D., 2020. Using social network analysis in WASH programs. (Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. Learning brief). Washington, DC, USA: USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. 5 p. : 2 tab.

This learning brief summarizes the application and use of social network analysis (SNA) in the Sustainable WASH Systems (SWS) Learning Partnership in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and Cambodia. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/using-social-network-analysis-wash-programs

Pugel, K., Javernick-Will, A., Koschmann, M., Peabody, S. & Linden, K., 2020. Adapting collaborative approaches for service provision to low-income countries : expert panel results. Sustainability, 12(7), pp.1-26 : 6 fig., 2 tab.

This study contributes to both literature and practice by identifying the relative importance of factors to consider when designing collaborative approaches in low-income countries with limited governance capabilities. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/adapting-collaborative-approaches-service-provision-low-income-countries-expert-panel

Chintalapati, P., 2020. Maintenance approaches to improve the sustainability of rural water supplies. (Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. Research brief). Washington, DC, USA: USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. 7 p.

This document reviews literature about the factors influencing the sustainability of rural water services, and the emerging maintenance approaches seeking to address these factors and improve service reliability. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/maintenance-approaches-improve-sustainability-rural-water-supplies

Valcourt, N., Javernick-Will, A., Walters, J. & Linden, K., 2020. System approaches to water, sanitation, and hygiene : a systematic literature review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3), pp.1-18 : 4 fig., 3 tab.

There is insufficient information in the literature to evaluate the utility and efficacy of systems approaches for improving WASH service sustainability. This article proposes recommendations for improving the evidence base. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/system-approaches-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-systematic-literature-review

McDermott, M., 2020. Ethiopia midterm organizational network analysis report. (Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. Research report). Washington, DC, USA: USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. ii, 67 : 27 fig., 16 tab.

Measuring change over time in the relationships and network structure of learning alliances in four separate Ethiopian locations in USAID’s Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership (SWS). Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/ethiopia-midterm-organizational-network-analysis-report

Ajroud, B., Hollander, D. & Peabody, S., 2020. Measuring systems change in WASH programming : a practical application of two tools. (Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. Research report). Washington, DC, USA: USAID Sustainable WASH Systems Learning Partnership. 31 p. : 6 boxes, 3 fig.

This report provides a guide to the practical application of outcome mapping and sustainability scorecards to monitor systems change in WASH programming. Read more: https://www.ircwash.org/resources/measuring-systems-change-wash-programming-practical-application-two-tools

For more on the Sustainable WASH Systems (SWS) learning partnership and a full list of publications go to:
https://www.globalwaters.org/sws