Tackling slippage – Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights

Tackling slippage – Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, September 2019.

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS explores current thinking and practice on the topic of tackling slippage of open defecation free (ODF) status. clts

It looks at how slippage is defined and identified, and at different patterns of slippage that are seen after ODF is declared.

Although a considerable amount has been written on how to establish strong Community-Led Total sanitation (CLTS) programmes that prevent slippage from happening, this issue looks at how to reverse slippage that has already taken place.

From the literature, there is little documented evidence on how slippage can be reversed; evidence and guidance tend to focus on prevention. This review begins to address this gap.

Implementers are encouraged to use the proposed patterns of slippage
framework and slippage factors section to understand the type and extent of slippage experienced, then use the examples in the section on tackling slippage to identify potential slippage responses.

CLTS Knowledge Hub webinar – Tackling Slippage

Tackling Slippage – CLTS Knowledge Hub

  • Tue, Sep 24, 2019
  • 6:00 AM – 7:30 AM EDT

To launch the new Frontiers of CLTS the CLTS Knowledge Hub is holding a webinar focusing on ways to tackle slippage in sanitation programming.

The new issue has two parts – the first looks at how slippage is defined, presents a framework for identifying slippage patterns, and revisits the factors known to contribute to slippage. clts

The second section provides six case examples of field experience of slippage and the actions taken to reverse it. It is hoped that the review lays the groundwork for more systematic learning and sharing on slippage to inform current and future programming and practice.

There is widespread recognition that slippage of open defecation free status is a challenge to sustainability across many programmes and contexts. Much has been written about how CLTS and other sanitation programmes can be set up for sustainability in order to prevent slippage from happening, this webinar examines what can be done if slippage has already happened.

A presentation will be given by the author Sophie Hickling a hygiene and sanitation specialist and a Senior Associate at MG Africa Consultants Ltd. as well as a number of practitioners who will present examples from the field. This will be followed by a Q&A.

Registration link.

 

Recent WASH research on water carrying, behavior change, container-based sanitation, etc.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Putting the “A” into WaSH: a call for integrated management of water, animals, sanitation, and hygiene. Lancet Planetary Health, August 2019. The first step—putting the “A” into WASH—is to shift the thinking to accelerate progress towards transformative WASH by considering pathways of enteropathogen transmission that are not currently central to WaSH strategies. We believe more substantial reductions in household and environmental fecal contamination are possible through concerted efforts to collectively improve the health of animals, humans, and the environment, while maintaining the benefits of livestock ownership. ghana

The association of water carriage, water supply and sanitation usage with maternal and child health. A combined analysis of 49 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 41 countries. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2 September 2019. Fetching water is associated with poorer maternal and child health outcomes, depending on who collects water. The percentage of people using improved sanitation seems to be more important than type of toilet facility, and must be high to observe an association with reduced child deaths and diarrhea. Water access on premises, and near universal usage of improved sanitation, is associated with improvements to maternal and child health.

Theory-driven formative research to inform the design of a national sanitation campaign in Tanzania. PLoS One, August 2019. The resulting Theory of Change recommended that the intervention should surprise people with a novel conversation about toilets, promote toilets as a means of conferring status, and introduce a perceived urgency to ‘act now’.

Behaviour settings theory applied to domestic water use in Nigeria: A new conceptual tool for the study of routine behavior. Social Science & Medicine, August 2019. Improving public health will require the disruption of settings, for example, through bringing water infrastructure directly to the home, through the sale of new props that facilitate hygienic routines, or in the disruption of gender roles via the promotion of new norms.

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low-income settlements. Waterlines, July 2019. Drawing on an initial review of existing CBS services, this paper identifies and evaluates these factors in relation to establishing CBS in a new service location. By applying a weighted scoring matrix to these factors, the potential viability of CBS services has been assessed for urban informal settlements in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya? Science of The Total Environment, 1 December 2019. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information.

Continue reading

New WSSCC resource! EQND Handbook for CLTS Facilitators

EQND handbook for CLTS facilitators

The Equality and Non-discrimination (EQND) and Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Handbook provides practical guidance for ensuring that behaviour change interventions leave no one behind.

Drawing on experience from across the sector, this handbook is specifically targeted towards those implementing or supervising CLTS interventions at the community level. Key features include:

  • A summary of EQND principles
  • Step-by-step guidance on applying these principles during pre-triggering, triggering meetings, and post-triggering follow-up visits
  • Annexes with practical tools, templates, and resources.

Two other documents of excellent reference include the Human Rights Principles and Terminology – Equality and Non-Discrimination: Supporting the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation (WSSCC, SNV and UTS) and Guidance and Tips for learning from people who may be most disadvantaged during the programme process (WSSCC) both collated by Sarah House.

As well, check out new resources published by the CLTS Knowledge Hub:

Globalwaters.org updates|WASH research|Reports from World Bank, UNICEF, MWA, Nature Conservancy

In addition to the studies and reports below, recent updates to Globalwaters.org include a new Resources page and the blog post USAID at World Water Week: How Strong Governance Attracts Investment

JOURNAL ARTICLES wateraid

The implications of three major new trials for the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene on childhood diarrhea and stunting: a consensus statement. BMC Medicine, August 2019. Our view is that these three new trials do not show that WASH in general cannot influence child linear growth, but they do demonstrate that these specific interventions had no influence in settings where stunting remains an important public health challenge. We support a call for transformative WASH, a comprehensive package of WASH interventions is needed that is tailored to address the local exposure landscape and enteric disease burden.

Effects of complexity of handwashing instructions on handwashing procedure replication in low-income urban slums in Bangladesh: a randomized non-inferiority field trial. Jnl WASH for Dev, Sept 2019. Simple handwashing steps are easier to remember for long time periods compared to complex steps.

Continue reading

Doing More with Less: Smarter Subsidies for Water Supply and Sanitation – World Bank

Doing More with Less: Smarter Subsidies for Water Supply and Sanitation. World Bank, August 2019. bank.jpg

In this report, we explore the question of how scarce public resources can be used most effectively to achieve universal delivery of WSS services. To inform our discussion, we analyze subsidies in the sector, including their magnitude, their efficacy in achieving their policy objectives, and the implications of poor design.

We then provide guidance to policy makers on how subsidies can be better designed to improve their efficacy and efficiency in attaining their objectives. Finally, we discuss how to design a subsidy reform package that will have the best chances of success.

Message 1 – Current WSS Subsidies Fail to Achieve Their Objectives Due to Poor Design; They Tend to Be Pervasive, Expensive, Poorly Targeted, Nontransparent, and Distortionary.

Message 2 – The Current Poor Performance of WSS Subsidies Can Be Avoided; New Knowledge and Technologies Are Making it Increasingly Possible for Subsidies to Cost Less and Do More.

Message 3 – To Successfully Reform Subsidies, a Subsidy Reform Package of Four Complementary Elements (in Addition to Improved Subsidy Design) Is Required

UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) 2019 report National systems to support drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene – Global status report 2019

UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) 2019 report: National systems to support drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene – Global status report 2019. WHO; UN Water, August 2019. who

There is widespread recognition that sustainable and effective WASH service delivery is not only determined by the state of infrastructure, but also by complex institutional, governance and financial management systems.

While a “system” may be interpreted or defined in different ways, core elements examined by the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) initiative include the extent to which countries develop and implement national policies and plans for WASH, conduct regular monitoring, regulate and take corrective action as needed, and coordinate these parallel processes with sufficient financial resources and support from strong national institutions.

GLAAS findings on the status of WASH systems are varied. Most countries have requisite components in place, but many countries responded that they have yet to operationalize and fully implement measures to support and strengthen their national WASH systems.

GLAAS findings highlight gaps and vulnerabilities in WASH systems and the need for further strengthening to assure sustainable and effective WASH service delivery in countries.

GLAAS data also allow an analysis of the extent to which, almost five years into the SDG period, countries have responded to the ambitious WASH targets established by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

With the understanding that achieving SDG 6 will require dramatic changes by countries, the GLAAS results show encouraging signs that countries have begun efforts to align with elements of the SDGs this early in the SDG era. However, the results of these efforts, and the vast majority of WASH progress in countries, are still to come.