USAID Water and Development Technical Series

USAID Water and Development Technical Series, 2020.

The Water and Development Technical Series is a set of technical briefs that provide guidance on important topics for developing and implementing water and sanitation activities in support of the U.S. Government Global Water Strategy and USAID’s plan under the strategy.

These briefs draw upon the latest evidence and provide recommendations for activity design, implementation, and monitoring. Each brief also provides links to additional resources.

Open Defecation-Free Slippage and Its Associated Factors in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

Open Defecation-Free Slippage and Its Associated Factors in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review. Systematic Reviews, November 2020.

Background – Recent studies have shown an increase in open defecation and slippage of open defecation-free certified villages in Ethiopia, despite significant progress the country made on sanitation programs. Hence, realizing of existing facts, this study was conducted aiming at a critical review of available literature and to provide consolidated data showing the level of slippage and its associated factors in Ethiopia.

Result – After screening 1382 studies, 12 studies were finally included in this systematic review. The estimated pooled rate of open defecation-free slippage in Ethiopia was 15.9% (95% CI 12.9–19.4%). The main contributing factors for open defecation-free slippage were lack of technical support, financial constraints, low-quality building materials, improper program implementation, and lack of sanitation marketing.

Conclusion – It was estimated that 1 out of 6 Ethiopian households engaged in open defecation after they have certified open defecation-free status, implying the low possibility of achieving sustainable development goals of 2030, which aims to ensure sanitation for all. Therefore, the government of Ethiopia and donors should better give special attention to the following options: (1) awareness for open defecation-free slippage, (2) launch a post-open defecation-free program, and (3) encourage research on pro-poor sustainable sanitation technologies.

USAID Water and Development Technical Series: Rural Sanitation, October 2020.

USAID Water and Development Technical Series: Rural Sanitation, October 2020.

This Water and Development Technical Brief provides an overview of the important factors to consider in rural sanitation programming, including information on how to address governance, financing, markets, and behaviors for sanitation. It provides guidance for developing, implementing and monitoring rural sanitation activities based on recent evidence.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

• Aim for area-wide geographic coverage. Go beyond the household and community levels to invest in area-wide (district or county) or market systems-level approaches to support impact and sustainability.

• Address governance, financing, markets, and behaviors. Successful sanitation programming must include interventions on governance, financing, markets, and behaviors and move away from an exclusive focus on direct service provision. The mix of approaches should be in direct response to the context.

• Targeted subsidies can be effective. Subsidy is not a dirty word. Targeted sanitation subsidies should be considered when seeking to reach the extreme poor and most vulnerable and can be successful when carefully combined with, or as a complement to, other approaches.

• Leave space for failure and learning. There are and will continue to be failures in rural sanitation programs, and there are not proven strategies/methods for all contexts (e.g., reaching the ultra poor). Plan for space and time and for staff to fail, iterate, assess progress, and adapt plans to ensure progress and sector-wide learning.

USAID Water and Development Technical Series: Urban Sanitation Services, 2020.

USAID Water and Development Technical Series: Urban Sanitation Services, 2020.

The purpose of this technical brief is to provide an overview of the important factors to consider in USAID’s urban sanitation programming.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

• Urban sanitation is more than just toilets. Dense urban environments require consideration of the whole sanitation service chain to ensure safely managed sanitation: fecal waste containment, collection, transport, treatment, and final disposal or reuse.

• Effective urban sanitation is city-wide and inclusive. There is no simple solution – rapidly growing cities require a range of technical solutions across the sanitation service chain. Ensuring that everyone benefits from safely managed sanitation requires specific approaches to target the underserved.

• Apply commercial principles to service provision. Management of sanitation services is as important as the technologies involved, and financial viability is a critical element of sustainable services. Local governments and providers must understand what the costs are for safely managed sanitation and how costs will be covered.

• Aim for strategic, incremental improvements. The sanitation challenge in urban areas is likely to overwhelm any single actor, so it is important to identify a manageable gap for USAID programming to address. Large investments in master planning and infrastructure are required, but urban migration, political dynamics, and logistical complexity require an incremental, locally relevant, and dynamic approach.

Sessions from the 2020 UNC Water & Health Conference

Below are links to selected events with USAID participation and others at the UNC Water Institute 2020 Water and Health Conference. CKM set up a Google shared document which has additional side events, verbal presentations and posters from the conference and links to all events can be found on the conference website.

Monday – October 26

Plenary Session – COVID-19: What we Know and Don’t Know About SARS-CoV-2 and Water, Wastewater, and Hygiene – The objective is to highlight the latest evidence around COVID-19 to inform both practice and policy around WaSH.

Plenary Session – COVID-19: State of the Global WaSH Response – This panel discussion explores the types of activities that have been undertaken by both developing country governments and international agencies.

Side Event – COVID-19: Hand Hygiene / Handwashing – This side event presents the science behind hand hygiene, provides case studies from the field, and highlights the way forward for Hand Hygiene for All.
Convening Organizations: Global Handwashing Partnership, Emory University, FHI 360, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UNICEF, Unilever, University College London, USAID, and the World Bank and 2030 Water Resources Group.

Side Event – COVID-19: Health Care Facilities – The COVID-19 pandemic has brought increased attention to the lack of WaSH and infection prevention and control capacity in healthcare facilities (HCFs) globally. This side event discusses the state of the science and presents a draft research agenda for improving WaSH in HCFs.
Convening Organizations: DevWorks, Engineers Without Borders USA, Global Water 2020, UNICEF, Water Institute at UNC, World Bank, World Health Organization, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.

Side Event – COVID-19: Wastewater Management – This side event brings together active researchers and practitioners for a lively discussion about the current state of SARS-CoV-2 research in wastewater. It explores the current state of the science in this important emerging area, challenges, opportunities, and engaging with the broader public health community of researchers and practitioners. Convening Organization(s): University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Notre Dame.

Tuesday – October 27

Side Event – Finance for WaSH – This session discusses opportunities to apply innovative financing in urban sanitation, drawing on recent examples in WASH and new research about the scale of the funding gap.
Convening Organizations: The Aquaya Institute, Social Finance, University of Leeds, iDE.

Side Event – JMP Updates: WASH in Schools: Accelerating Progress in Response to COVID-19 – This session discusses the newly released updated global estimates on WASH in schools, examples of how countries have gathered and used data to accelerate progress in response to the pandemic, and ideas to continue the momentum post-COVID.
Convening Organizations: UNICEF, WHO, GIZ, LSHTM, Swiss Water & Sanitation Consortium

Side Event – Serving the Urban Poor: Evidence to Support Decision-making in Continuous Supply and Sanitation: 2 Case Studies in Sub-Saharan Africa – Presents a continuous water case study from Lusaka, Zambia and urban sanitation solutions using 3 decision tools from Kampala, Uganda. The session is led by partners from sub Saharan Africa with time allowed for discussion with stakeholders on their experiences.

Frontiers of Sanitation (16): Incontinence: We Need to Talk About Leaks

The new Frontiers of Sanitation (16): Incontinence: We Need to Talk About Leaks aims to provide the WASH sector with:

  • A basic introduction to incontinence and the realities that people living with incontinence face;
  • Practical suggestions for how to identify and engage with people living with incontinence to start ‘talking about leaks, ‘How to Talk About Leaks: A Checklist’ accompanies the Frontiers;
  • Practical suggestions for the WASH sector (and others) to contribute to reducing inequalities associated with incontinence.

The Sanitation Learning Hub would like to extend many thanks to the excellent authors who created the guide and checklist: Claire Rosato-Scott, Dr Dani Barrington, Dr Amita Bhakta, Dr Sarah House, Dr Islay Mactaggart and Jane Wilbur.

Hazard and Environmental Considerations in Toilet Design

Live & Learn Environmental Education’s training manual for toilet location and design is now available in English and Bislama! This practical manual contains a training schedule, and step-by-step instructions for the range of issues that need to be considered when a person or family decides to improve their household toilet – including cost, management of solid waste, and potential natural and environmental hazards.

This publication was supported by the Australian government, through the Civil Society WASH Program.

You can read or download Hazard and Environmental Considerations in Toilet Design resource here.

A WASH update from USAID Water CKM

The purpose of this informal research update is to highlight some of the most recent WASH sector studies and resources by USAID and others. Please send links to recent or upcoming studies and events that you would like to feature in upcoming issues. We welcome your suggestions to make the updates more useful.  This biweekly features:

  • Globalwaters.org updates
  • Other USAID updates
  • Events
  • Water quality/water security studies
  • Health studies
  • Sanitation studies
  • WASH & COVID-19 updates

UPDATES TO GLOBALWATERS.ORG
USAID Global Water and Development Report FY 2018–2019. USAID, October 2020. During the first two years of the U.S. Global Water Strategy implementation (Fiscal Years 2018 and 2019), USAID provided $835 million to support water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) activities in 51 countries.

What Does it Take to Sustain Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Outcomes? Lessons from Six Ex-Post Evaluations. USAID Water CKM Team, October 2020. Through its commitment to identifying sustainable approaches to WASH, USAID commissioned a series of six ex-post evaluations of its WASH activities completed three to 10 years prior. These studies identified what outcomes had been sustained years later and why. Link to the October 22, 2020 webinar.

USAID Water and Development Technical Series. These technical briefs provide guidance on important topics for developing and implementing water and sanitation activities in support of the U.S. Government Global Water Strategy and USAID’s plan under the strategy. Technical Briefs are available on: Rural Water Services, Rural Sanitation Services, WASH and Its Links to Nutrition, Gender Equality and Female Empowerment in WASH, and Urban Sanitation Services.

OTHER USAID UPDATES
USAID Transform WASH: Ethiopia’s Business Environment and Business and How It Influences WASH Market Development. IRC WASH, September 2020. This Learning Note explores challenges in the private sector enabling environment and highlights opportunities for growth and investment in the WASH sector. Additional Learning Notes

USAID Global Water and Development Report FY 2018–2019

USAID Global Water and Development Report FY 2018–2019. USAID, October 2020.

This year’s Global Water and Development Report of Water and Sanitation Activities explores USAID  water, sanitation, and hygiene programming two years into the implementation of the U.S. Government Global Water Strategy

Key areas of programmatic focus include governance and finance, sanitation and hygiene, safe drinking water, and water resources management. Read the report to learn how USAID is achieving these development goals in eight different countries.

We are proud to share that in FY 2018 and 2019, USAID provided $835 million to support water, sanitation, and hygiene activities in 51 countries.

As a result of USAID support from FY 2008 to FY 2019, 53.7 million people gained access to sustainable water services, and 38 million people gained access to sustainable sanitation services. 

Rapid Action Learning and COVID-19 – Sanitation Learning Hub

Rapid Action Learning and COVID-19 – Sanitation Learning Hub, October 2020.

A-ha! A moment etched in my memory: 20 or so researchers were gathered in a room in Delhi. All were engaged in field research projects relevant to sanitation, health and the Swachh Bharat (Clean India) Mission- Gramin. The SBMG campaign was huge and thought to be the largest behaviour change programme ever in the world.

It had the high-profile target of an open defecation free rural India in about two years from the time of this meeting. The Secretary responsible for leading and driving the programme came briefly to see what he could learn.

The field researchers explained that it was too early to be able to say anything definite but in a year or two they would have something for him….the Secretary’s response was stark and emphatic, ‘I don’t want to know in a year or two. I need to know now!’

In parallel and in contrast with the more conventional research reported in this Delhi meeting, the Sanitation Learning Hub at IDS, with our partners WSSCC, WaterAid India, Praxis, Delhi University and others, were working on what we called RAL (Rapid Action Learning).

Read the complete blog post.